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Parashah 04 VaYera

Genesis 18:1 – 22:24

By Dr. K. Blad  ©

Second edition 2013-14 (5774)

Lucrative copying not permitted.

Torah Readings:

  1. 18:1-14
  2. 18:15-33
  3. 19:1-20
  4. 19:21 – 21:4
  5. 21:5-21
  6. 21:22-34
  7. 22:1-24
  8. Maftir: 22:20-24

Haftarah: 2 Kings 4:1-37(Ashkenazi) 4:1-23(Sephardic)


         Means “and he revealed himself”


The First Aliyah, 18:1-14

18:1-3 “And HaShem appeared unto him by the terebinths of Mamre, as he sat in the tent door in the heat of the day; and he lifted up his eyes and looked, and, lo, three men stood over against him; and when he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door, and bowed down to the earth, and said: ‘My lord, if now I have found favor in thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant.’”(JPS revised) – According to Talmud[1], this happened three days after the circumcision, when the pain was at its worst. According to Talmud,[2] there were two separate supernatural manifestations. First, the Shechinah of the Eternal, His immediate Presence, was revealed, and later came the visit of the three malachim, angels. The three angels are said to be Michael – who came to foretell the birth of Yitzchak, Gavriel – who came to destroy Sedom and the towns under its rule, and Rafael – who came to heal Avraham after the circumcision. Talmud tells us that thereafter Michael accompanied Gavriel when he went down to Sedom to destroy the city.

On the other hand, a Midrash[3] claims that Michael returned to heaven after having delivered his message to Avraham about the birth of Yitzchak, and that Rafael went to Sedom, in order to save Lot, together with Gavriel, who went to destroy the city.

The Torah says that there were “three men” who came, in Hebrew shloshah anashim. Further on we see that two of them went down to Sedom while one of them remained with Avraham. In chapter 19, verse 1 it says:

“The two angels (malachim) arrived at Sedom in the evening.”(NIV revised)

The word malach, in plural malachim, simply means “messenger” or “ambassador”. Therefore we do not know if this word means earthly people or angels from heaven. The context shows us in each case, which it is, and the context in this case shows us that it was an unusual revelation from heaven.

The angel, who had remained with our father Avraham and later had gone down to Sedom, represents the Eternal in a special way, and therefore he carries the Name of the Eternal, see 18:20, 21-22, 26, 33; 19:27.

In 19:24 it is written,

“Then HaShem rained down burning sulfur on Sedom and Amorah, from HaShem out of the heavens.”(Auth)

Other Bible texts show similar revelations of a HaShem who is in heaven, and of a HaShem who reveals himself on earth. See Zechariah 2:11; 12:10; 14:5; Isaiah 48:15-16.

On the other hand, in Rashi’s[4] comments on Genesis 19:24, he claims that where it says “from HaShem” it is a typical expression that is found in several different verses in the Tanach (OT). There is a similar expression in Genesis 4:23 where Lamekh said: “Lamekh said to his wives…’Wives of Lamekh (not ‘my wives’)’”. In 1 Kings 1:33, David speaks of himself as he says: “take with you the servants of your lord (not ‘my servants’)…”. And in Esther 8:8, king Achashverosh says: “Now write another decree in the king’s (not “my”) name…”. In this case it says “from HaShem” instead of “from him”, which had been the norm.

But the Targum texts[5] give another interpretation of this type of double revelation of the Eternal. They also give us an idea of how these different readings of HaShem were understood during second temple period Judaism.

In the portions where there are more than one HaShem in the text, or where HaShem is manifested in this world, the Targum texts have replaced HaShem with the words: “HaShem’s Word”. The Aramaic word for “word” is Memrah (with the emphasis on the second syllable).

One example is Genesis 19:24 where the translation of the Hebrew text is as follows,

“Then HaShem rained down burning sulfur on Sedom and Amorah – from HaShem out of the heavens.”(NIV revised)

Here Yonatan’s Targum paraphrases,

“Then HaShem’s Word rained down burning sulfur on Sedom and Amorah – from HaShem out of the heavens.”

Onkelos’ Targum says in Genesis 15:6,

“And Avraham trusted in HaShem’s Word and He credited it to him as righteousness.”

According to the translation of Genesis 22:14, Avraham prayed in HaShem’s Word’s name as it is written in Yerushalayim’s Targum,

“And Avraham worshipped and prayed in HaShem’s Word’s name, and said: ‘You are HaShem, who sees me, but You cannot be seen’”

Note that Avraham prays “in HaShem’s Word’s name” to the HaShem who “cannot be seen”. Here there seems to be two HaShem. Avraham prays in HaShem’s Word’s name, but he prays to the HaShem who cannot be seen.

In Yerushalayim’s Targum it says in Genesis 16:13,

“And Hagar worshipped and prayed in HaShem’s Word’s name who had revealed Himself to her…”

Onkelos’ Targum translates Genesis 28:20-21 like this,

“And Ya’akov made a vow, saying, ‘If HaShem’s Word will be with me and will watch over me on this journey I am taking and will give me food to eat and clothes to wear so that I return safely to my father’s house, then HaShem’s Word will be my God.’”

The Messianic Writings (NT) give us more light about this HaShem’s Word, who reveals himself on earth as a HaShem Katan – a small HaShem.

In John 1:1-3 and 14, it is written,

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through it, and separately from Him not even one thing came into being that has come into being… And the Word became flesh, and tabernacled among us, and we beheld His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth.”(MRC revised)

In 1 John 1:1-2, it is written,

“That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, what we beheld and our hands felt, concerning the Word of Life-- and the life was manifested, and we have seen and testify and announce to you the eternal life which was with the Father and was manifested to us.”(MRC)

18:8 “And he took curd, and milk, and the calf which he had dressed, and set it before them; and he stood by them under the tree, and they did eat.”(JPS) – The Hebrew word that is translated as “curd” is chemah[6] which, according to Rashi, means the fat that is taken from the surface of the milk.

According to Jewish halachah, it is forbidden to eat food containing a combination of meat and milk products. The texts that this is based on are Exodus 23:19, 34:26, and Deuteronomy 14:21. The rabbis base the following three prohibitions on those texts:[7]

  • Boiling meat together with milk.

  • Eating that type of mixture.

  • Using that type of mixture.

First eating milk products and, after having cleansed the mouth and eaten a little bread, it is then permitted to eat meat products. After eating cheese it is appropriate to wait longer.[8] After eating meat one must wait several hours before eating milk products, depending on which of the different traditions you follow.

The Torah’s prohibition of the mixture of meat and dairy includes only mammals, in other words, birds are not included.

The Karaite Jews who do not recognize the halachah or other Jewish man-made traditions, say that this text does not forbid the mixture of dairy and meat, but only what is plainly written in the Torah about not boiling a calf in its mother’s milk.

Against this argument we here present some other opinions:

  • Many of the commandments that are found in the Torah use specific examples, without being limited to those cases. The examples are given to show a general truth that applies in all similar cases.

  • The Jewish sages have since ancient times interpreted these texts in a general way, by not only applying them to the specific case of boiling a calf in its mother’s milk, but also applying them to not mixing dairy and meat products.Medical science reveals that it is not healthy for the digestive system to eat this type of mixture. Meat needs acid, and milk is alkaline, which resists acid.

  • A habit which was practised by many Jews for a long time evolved into a law in Israel, according to Genesis 32:32. See 1 Corinthians 11:16.

During the Middle Ages, this law was extended to include the meat of clean birds as well. This was because the Jews of Europe were forbidden to do business in the daytime during a certain era. In order for the people not to make the mistake of confusing the meat of bird with beef while shopping and cooking at night, there was a fence placed around the Torah that forbade the meat of birds, as well as beef, from being mixed with dairy products. This tradition has later spread among the majority of the Jewish population and practising Jews observe it.

If we go back to the text at hand, we see how Avraham offered both milk and meat products to the visitors. Did our father Avraham not follow the commandments?

In Genesis 26:5, it is written,

“because that Avraham hearkened to My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws.”(JPS revised)

The Hebrew word that is translated “laws” is torot (with the emphasis on the second syllable), which is the plural form of torah, instruction.

The Eternal does not change his laws from one day to the next, from one generation to the next, from one century to the next and not even from one age to the next. His laws for man are the same for as long as heaven and earth remain, see Matthew 5:18. So it would seem likely that our father Avraham would have kept the kashrut[9] laws. How can we explain this text that seems so full of contradictions?

There are several different possible ways of interpreting this text:

  • This prohibition was only given to the children of Israel when the written Torah was handed over from Sinai. That’s why Avraham could eat meat with dairy.

  • Avraham offered his guests two menus and they could choose between eating only the milk products or the meat products.

  • Avraham offered first the milk products and then the meat products.

The last interpretation agrees with the text that first mentions the milk product and later the meat product. It is possible that our father Avraham first offered the milk products, which normally don’t require preparation time before being served, so that they could eat them while he was preparing the meat. Rashi says: “He served them in the order that he cooked the food.”

This text is not proof that they ate milk and meat together. Neither can it be used to prove the opposite.

18:12 “And Sarah laughed within herself, saying: ‘After I am waxed old shall I have pleasure, my lord being old also?’”(JPS) – Rashi says that she laughed when she thought about her womb and her dried up breasts.

“My lord” – In Hebrew adoni. What a respectful way to speak of one’s spouse!

In 1 Peter 3:6, it is written,

“as Sarah obeyed Avraham, calling him lord; and you have become her children if you do good without being frightened by any terror.”(MRC)

18:14 “Is anything too hard for HaShem? I will return to you at the appointed time next year and Sarah will have a son.”(NIV revised) – The Hebrew word that is translated “appointed time” is moed[10] and has to do with the feasts of the Eternal which are presented in Leviticus 23. It means that Yitzchak would be born during one of these feasts. Both verse 18:6 and 19:3 give us a hint that it was during the feast of the unleavened bread. Jewish tradition puts Yitzchak’s birth on the 15th of Nissan, the same day that the people of Israel would later leave Egypt. [11]

The Second Aliyah, 18:15-33

18:15 “Then Sarah denied, saying: ‘I laughed not’; for she was afraid. And He said: 'Nay; but thou didst laugh.’”(JPS) – Here we see that Sarah lied when the time came to testify before authority figures. The reason was that she was afraid. From this text the halachah was later formed that forbade women to testify before a Beit Din (Jewish court of law). Not even the most righteous among women was able to hold to the truth on account of fear. This law protects the sensitive soul of the woman.

18:19 “For I have chosen him, so that he will direct his children and his household after him to keep the way of HaShem by doing what is right and just, so that HaShem will bring about for Avraham what he has promised him.”(NIV revised) – The stipulation for the promises being fulfilled for Avraham was that he would carry over the way of righteousness to his children. There are many other texts that speak about this, see Exodus 10:2; 12:26-27; 13:8, 14; Deuteronomy 4:9, 10; 6:7, 20-25; 11:19; 32:46; Psalm 78:5-7; 44:1; Proverbs 22:6.

18:23 “And Avraham drew near, and said: ‘Wilt Thou indeed sweep away the righteous with the wicked?’”(JPS revised) – The Hebrew word that is translated “and… drew near” is vayigash. That word can be used in three ways:

  • To make war, see 2 Samuel 10:13.

  • To humble, see Genesis 44:18.

  • To intercede, see 1 Kings 18:36.

Avraham utilized all three of these ways when he drew near to the Eternal. In verses 23-26 there is a challenging attitude toward the Eternal. In verses 27-29 there is humility, and in verses 30-32 there is predominantly intercessory prayer.

18:32 “Then he said, ‘May HaShem not be angry, but let me speak just once more. What if only ten can be found there?’ He answered, ‘For the sake of ten I will not destroy it.’”(NIV revised) – Why did Avraham not go further? A Midrash[12] says that since HaShem did not spare the generation that existed at the time of Noach, when there were eight righteous people, there was no use to go any further.

The number ten in Scripture represents the whole. In Genesis chapter 1, we find the expression “God said” ten times in relation to the creation of the world. Ten righteous people would have represented all of Sedom. Ten Commandments represent the whole Torah. Ten spies represented all the people. The tithe represents all the income, etc.

In Judaism ten righteous men are needed in order to have a minyan, a lawful assembly of people that represents all of Israel. It is considered necessary to have a minyan both in order to pray in the synagogue and in order to make certain important legal actions.

The Third Aliyah, 19:1-20

19:1 “The two angels arrived at Sedom in the evening, and Lot was sitting in the gateway of the city. When he saw them, he got up to meet them and bowed down with his face to the ground.”(NIV revised) – To sit in the gate means to have an important place as one of the leaders in the municipal council. At that time, the leaders of the city council sat in the gates. Therefore, when the Messiah says that the gates of the kingdom of death will not overcome the community that he will build (Matthew 16:18), he is using the Hebraic way of speaking, which means that the authorities of the gentile cities would not be able to stop the growth and triumph of the community of the Messiah.

Rashi holds forth the fact that the Hebrew word for “sat”, yoshev, is written in an incomplete way, missing the letter vav. This indicates that Lot had been appointed judge just that day.

Lot rose before these people as a sign of respect. Within Judaism there is a rule about rising before persons of higher rank.

In Leviticus 19:32, it is written,

“Thou shalt rise up before the hoary (gray) head, and honour the face of the old man, and thou shalt fear thy God: I am HaShem.”(JPS revised)

The elders should be honored by the youth. Not to rise when one’s father or an older person comes into the room is considered disrespectful among the God fearers in Israel.

In Job 29:7-10, it is written,

“When I went forth to the gate unto the city, when I prepared my seat in the broad place, The young men saw me and hid themselves, and the aged rose up and stood; The princes refrained talking, and laid their hand on their mouth; The voice of the nobles was hushed, and their tongue cleaved to the roof of their mouth.”(JPS)

This is the way one ought to behave toward a person of higher rank. This includes a parent, a grandparent, an older person, and an authority figure in the community or in the congregational fellowship. Each one of these people represents the authority of the Eternal and to show them respect is to honor God who is the highest judge and has delegated his authority to them by giving them their position.

According to Midrash literature, there was a law in Sedom that forbade its inhabitants to receive guests from the outside. Lot challenged that law and received the travelers.

“bowed with his face to the ground” – The root of this Hebrew word is shachah[13] which means to bow down in reverence. The word was translated into Greek as proskuneo[14] which, in large, has the same meaning. Neither of these words represents the English word “worship” in the sense of “bowing in respect before the Most High”. It can be understood that way when it is used in connection with ministry before the Eternal. But this is not its principal meaning. If shachah had meant “worship”, then Lot would have sinned when he bowed down to the earth before these angels of the Most High.

A deeper study of how these terms are used in Scripture reveals that when the Christian Bible translations speak about worshipping Jesus, it is a tendentious translation. In those cases, the catholic doctrine of the trinity doctrine has colored the translator’s word choice.

When you study the book of Revelation, you see that the Lamb does not receive any worship. Only the Father receives that. It is forbidden to worship the Son in the same way that the Father is to be worshipped. To worship actually means to confess someone as one’s highest authority, and the Son does not have that authority. The Father is above him and if the Son receives worships – according to the English meaning of the word – the Father is set aside. He is the One Who has given the Son all the power. It is a form of idolatry.

According to Philippians 2, every knee will bow in Yeshua’s name. That does not mean that they will bow before Yeshua, but before the Father in the name of Yeshua, which means that through Yeshua all will confess the Father as the highest authority. In this way the Father is glorified through the Son, as it is written in Philippians 2:11,

“and that every tongue should confess that Yeshua HaMashiach is Adon, to the glory of God the Father.”(MRC revised)

This is a quote from Isaiah 45:23-25, where it is written,

“By Myself have I sworn, the word is gone forth from My mouth in righteousness, and shall not come back, that unto Me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear. Only in HaShem, shall one say of Me, is victory and strength; even to Him shall men come in confusion, all they that were incensed against Him. In HaShem shall all the seed of Israel be justified, and shall glory.”(JPS revised)

One can bow in reverence before the Son and acknowledge the authority that he has received from the Father, but not in order to worship him as if he has replaced the Father. In Judaism, a son can never rise above his father or replace his father during his lifetime. Christianity has replaced the Father with the Son by singing to the Son as if he was the Most High. It is time to expose this lack of respect for the Eternal King who is immortal and invisible, the Only God who is worthy to receive glory and honor forever and ever. Amen!

19:15 “And when the morning arose, then the angels hastened Lot, saying: ‘Arise, take thy wife, and thy two daughters that are here; lest thou be swept away in the iniquity of the city.’”(JPS) – There is a very interesting word in this text. It is the Hebrew word hanimtzaot, which means “those that are found”, “those that will be found”. The idea behind it is that the Eternal has found these two girls.

Midrash literature uses the rule of interpretation guezerah shavah – similar expression – in order to connect this text with Psalm 89:21 where it speaks about David who was found by the Eternal, as it is written,

“I have found David My servant; with My sacred oil have I anointed him;”(JPS revised)

The Midrash[15] asks,

““Where did I find him (David)?”, and answers thereafter: “In Sedom!””

This requires an explanation. The two daughters of Lot later bore two sons who became two nations, Moav and Ammon. Later on the Moabitess, Rut, entered the congregation of Israel by marrying Boaz, and became a mother in the lineage of both David and the Messiah. In the same way king Shelomoh married an Ammonitess, Naamah, and bore Rechavam (Rehabeam), see 1 Kings 14:21; 31; 2 Chronicles 12:13. King Rechavam is one of the forefathers of the Messiah.

This means that some of the forefathers of the Messiah were in Sedom. This was one of the reasons that the angels had to go there in order to save Lot and his daughters. There HaShem found David and Ben David, David’s Son!

Lot’s wife came from Sedom, and through her there is a genetic connection between this evil people and the Messiah. This means that there are genes from Sedom in Yeshua! So the Messiah Yeshua was able to make tikkun (rectification) on behalf of his forefathers, and carry their sins in his body and die also for them that they may have a chance to make teshuvah, repentance, and receive forgiveness, as it is written in Matthew 11:23 -24,

“And you, K’far-Nachum, will you be exalted to Heaven? You shall be brought down to Sheol; for if the miracles had occurred in Sedom which occurred in you, it would have remained until this day. Nevertheless I say to you that it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sedom on the day of judgment than for you.” (RMC revised)

In Deuteronomy 23:3-4, it is written,

“An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of HaShem; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of HaShem for ever; because they met you not with bread and with water in the way, when ye came forth out of Egypt; and because they hired against thee Bil’am the son of Beor from Pethor of Aram-Naharaim, to curse thee.”(JPS revised)

So, how was it possible for these two women, Ruth and Naamah, who came from these two peoples, Moav and Ammon, not only to come into Israel, but also to become mothers in the lineage of the Messiah?!

According to Talmud[16] Boaz, who married Ruth, was the same person as Ivtzan from Beit-Lechem, see Judges 12:8. It is possible that it was he or another earlier judge, who incorporated the interpretation that the law forbidding Moabites and Ammonites in Israel was only concerning the men, not the women. This means that a halachah had been established by men and it applied the commands of the Torah to the time period that they were living in.

One might bring this halachah into question. Most likely there were probably those who doubted David’s authenticity (genuineness), and questioned whether he really had the right to sit on the throne of Israel. His grandfather’s mother was a Moabitess, see Ruth 4:22; Psalm 69:8.

The great judge and prophet Shmuel, confirmed this halachah established by the judges of Israel, when he anointed David as king over Israel. He did this at the command of the Eternal. Obviously the Eternal supported a man-made halachah that said that women were excluded from the laws of Deuteronomy 23:3-4!

The Fourth Aliyah, 19:21 – 21:4

19:26 “But his (Lot’s) wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt.” (JPS) – The angel had clearly said in verse 17 that they should not turn around to see the destruction of Sedom and the other cities in the valley. How important it is to listen to the details of the commandments of the Eternal! Yeshua said that we should remember Lot’s wife, as it is written in Luke 17:32,

“Remember Lot’s wife!”(MRC)

Avraham, however, was permitted to behold the complete destruction.

19:27 “And Avraham got up early in the morning to the place where he had stood before HaShem.”(JPS revised) – The Torah presents Avraham as one who gets up in the morning to pray. Yitzchak is presented as one who prays in the afternoon, see Genesis 24:63, and Ya’akov as one who prays in the evening and in the night, see Genesis 32:24. In the same way there are three times during the day when sacrifices were brought forth in the temple; morning, evening, and night. At each of these sacrifices there was also prayer, see Luke 1:10. The Morning Prayer, shacharit, was introduced by our father Avraham. The afternoon prayer, minchah, was introduced by Yitzchak, and evening prayer, arvit, was introduced by Ya’akov, see Psalm 55:17; Daniel 6:10.

19:31 “And the first-born said unto the younger: ‘Our father is old, and there is not a man in the earth to come in unto us after the manner of all the earth.’”(JPS) – According to a Midrash,[17] they believed that there were no men left on the earth, as in after the flood. Therefore they had the good intention of wanting to preserve the human race. Their deeds were evil, but their motives were good. Therefore their descendants were blessed by the Eternal in spite of their sin.

19:37-38 “And the first-born bore a son, and called his name Moav - the same is the father of the Moabites unto this day. And the younger, she also bore a son, and called his name Ben-Ammi - the same is the father of the children of Ammon unto this day.”(JPS revised) – The older sister was not ashamed of what she had done and she named her son “From a Father”. The younger was more discreet and called her son “the Son of My People”. Later on, when the children of Israel were to enter the Promised Land, they received an order about not mistreating the children of Moav and Ammon. But there is a small difference in how the two nations were to be treated in Deuteronomy 2:9a and 19a,

And the LORD said to me, 'Do not harass Moab or contend with them in battle… And when you approach the territory of the people of Ammon, do not harass them or contend with them.”(ESV)

The command concerning Ammon was more stern than that concerning Moav. Israel had a right to provoke Moav, but not to the extent of war. However, in the case of Ammon, they had no right to provoke at all. This was because the older sister had felt no shame over her sin with her father.

20:1a “Now Avraham moved on from there…”(JPS revised) – Since Avraham kept himself busy by taking in bypassing strangers and giving them food and shade in order to be able to speak with them about the Eternal, he was now forced to leave the area of Sedom, since no one traveled that way any longer.

A Midrash[18] says that the rumors of Lot’s incest with his daughters also influenced Avraham, since he was his relative. That was another reason that he did not want to remain there.

20:2 “And Avraham said of Sarah his wife: ‘She is my sister.’ And Avimelech king of Gerar sent, and took Sarah.”(JPS revised) – Over the course of three months, Sarah’s youth had returned to her so much so, that she was now very attractive despite her 89 years. The king of the Philistines takes her to himself by force in order to marry her. This becomes a serious attack against the promise of the son that would be born within a year. But the Eternal intervenes, and rectifies the situation.

20:7 “Now therefore restore the man’s wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live; and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine.”(JPS) – Avraham is called a prophet, in Hebrew navi[19]. This is the first time that the word occurs in the Scriptures. In Psalm 105:15 there is a reference to this occasion in Avraham’s life, as it is written,

“Touch not Mine anointed ones, and do My prophets no harm.”(JPS)

We see in this text that one of the most important responsibilities of a prophet is to pray for the needy. Avraham needed to pray for a people and a king who had taken his wife from him by force. When he prayed for this heathen nation, the Eternal healed his own wife.

In Job 42:10, it is written,

“And HaShem changed the fortune of Iyov, when he prayed for his friends; and HaShem gave Iyov twice as much as he had before.”(JPS revised)

20:12 “And moreover she is indeed my sister, the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and so she became my wife.”(JPS) – According to Rashi, Sarah was Terach’s granddaughter. The Hebrew word for father, av, can also mean grandfather, great grandfather, etc. The Hebrew word for daughter, bat, can also mean granddaughter, great granddaughter, etc. According to Targum and  the Book of Jasher’s, Sarah was the daughter of Avraham’s uncle, in other words, his cousin.

21:2 “And Sarah conceived, and bore Avraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him.”(JPS revised) – Rumors that the father of the child was Avimelech were silenced by the fact that the boy was the spitting image of his father. Later on Avraham’s servant, Eliezer, mistakenly thought that Yitzchak was his master, see 24:65.

The Fifth Aliyah, 21:5-21

21:8 “And the child grew, and was weaned. And Avraham made a great feast on the day that Yitzchak was weaned.”(JPS revised) – According to Rashi, the child was not weaned because there was a lack of breast milk, but because he was now 24 months old.

21:9 “Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Avraham, mocking.”(HNV) – Instead of developing a brotherly love, he started despising the little one and even tormenting him, as it is written in Galatians 4:29,

“But as at that time he who was born according to the flesh persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit, as it is also at present.”(MRC)

A Midrash[20] says that Yishmael shot arrows at his brother and pretended that he was hunting. Later on, he grew to be a skillful archer.

The root of the word that is translated “made sport” is tzachak[21], which means laugh. It is the same root that is found in the name Yitzchak. The word is also used in other texts with a sexual implication, as for instance in Genesis 26:8, where it is written,

It happened, when he had been there a long time, that Avimelekh king of the Pelishtim looked out at a window, and saw, and, behold, Yitzchak was caressing (tzachak) Rivka, his wife.”(HNV)

In Genesis 39:14, it is written,

“that she called unto the men of her house, and spoke unto them, saying: ‘See, he hath brought in a Hebrew unto us to mock (tzachak) us; he came in unto me to lie with me, and I cried with a loud voice.’”(JPS)

The word is also used in connection with idolatry in Exodus 32:6 where it is written,

“And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered ascension offerings, and brought peace-offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to make merry (tzachak).”(JPS revised)

It could therefore be possible that what Yishma’el did to Yitzchak was a mixture of violence, sex, and idolatry, which are the three gravest sins. When Sarah saw this she was very offended. This type of influence was not good for her son. Besides, he also ran the risk of being killed in an “accident”.

21:10 “Wherefore she said unto Avraham: ‘Cast out this bondwoman and her son; for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Yitzchak.’”(JPS revised) – This word was not inspired by Sarah’s yetzer harah, evil inclination, “flesh”, but by the Ruach HaKodesh, the prophetic Spirit. Later on the Eternal confirmed her words and commanded Avraham to do according to all that Sarah had said to him.

21:12 “God said to Avraham, ‘Don't let it be grievous in your sight because of the boy, and because of your handmaid. In all that Sarah says to you, listen to her voice. For from Yitzchak will your seed be called.’”(HNV) – In Hebrew it does not just say that Avraham should listen to Sarah, but to Sarah’s “voice”. The Hebrew word is kol,[22] which means voice. In this case it was not just any voice, but a prophetic voice.

Yishmael will not inherit together with Yitzchak, and through Yitzchak the descendants will be called after Avraham. The Arabs have no right to take for themselves that which belongs to the Jews. If, however, they submit to the plan that the Eternal has for the “little brother”, they will be very blessed, as the prophet Isaiah says in chapter 19, verses 18 and on.

21:14 “And Avraham arose up early in the morning, and took bread and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away; and she departed, and strayed in the wilderness of Beer-Sheva.”(JPS revised) – According to Rashi the word “strayed” here means that in her heart she returned to the gods of Egypt. Therefore there was no blessing and the water ran dry in the leather bottle. Idolatry produces drought.

21:15 “And the water in the bottle was spent, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs.”(JPS) – The teen was over 16 years old. According to Rashi he was sick and therefore he had earlier been laid on Hagar’s shoulder, according to the Hebrew text in verse 14.

21:16 “And she went, and sat her down over against him a good way off, as it were a bow-shot; for she said: ‘Let me not look upon the death of the child.’ And she sat over against him, and lifted up her voice, and wept.’”(JPS) – What kind of mother abandons her child when he is about to die? Hagar did. She thought only of herself, not of the welfare of her son at the most critical moment of his life. Furthermore, she had completely forgotten the words that the angel had given her concerning her son’s future.

Golda Meir said, “When the Arabs love their children more than they hate the Jews, then there can be peace!”

This cruel attitude that Hagar had can still be found in the mothers among the Palestinian people, who send their children off to be suicide bombers in order to kill a few Jews.

May the Eternal have mercy on the Arabs so that their hearts can be humbled and sensitive causing them to love their children the way the Jews love their children!

21:19 “And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink.”(JPS) – If the teen was in mortal danger because of dehydration, why did Hagar take her time and fill the whole leather bottle with water? A Midrash says that it was because she was afraid that the well would disappear just as quickly as it had appeared.

The well was there all along. When we are in a crisis situation or have problems, we do not need to go up to heaven or down to the depths in order to find the solution. What we do need is to have a good relationship with the Eternal so that He can open our eyes in order that we may see the solution that is not far from us.

If you are in a crisis right now, open your eyes and see that the solution is right by your side, as it is written in 1 Corinthians 10:13,

“No temptation has taken you except what is human; and God is faithful, Who will not allow you to be tempted above what you have the power to have done to you, but with the temptation will make an exit also, that you may have the power to bear it.”(MRC)

Together with the temptation he also prepares a way out! Baruch HaShem! – Blessed be the Eternal!

The Sixth Aliyah, 21:22-34

21:30-31 “He replied, ‘Accept these seven lambs from my hand as a witness that I dug this well.’ So that place was called Beer-Sheva, because the two men swore an oath there.”(NIV revised) – Beer means “well”, shava comes from shevuah – oath – and sheva means “seven”. The words shava and sheva have the same root. This means that Beer-Sheva can mean either “The Oath Well” or “The Seven Well”.

21:33 “And Avraham planted a tamarisk-tree in Beer-Sheva, and called there on the name of HaShem, the Everlasting God.”(JPS revised) – The Rabbis Rav and Shmuel discussed the meaning of the word eshel which has here been translated to mean “tamarisk-tree”. One of them said that it was talking about a garden from where the fruit was offered to all travelers for their meals. The other said that it was referring to a hostel that could receive those that traveled by and that there were many fruit trees in it.

One thing is for certain, this place was transformed into a center for proclaiming the Name of the Eternal. According to a Midrash, Avraham invited everyone that passed by to come in, eat, and be revived without having to pay anything. After the meal he said to them, “Come let us bless the Most High and Sanctified King, Him that you have eaten of.” He would explain to them that they had not eaten his food, but rather the food of the One who had spoken so that the world was created. In this way, he won many souls for the Kingdom.

“the Everlasting God” – In Hebrew El Olam. El means “Mighty” and olam[23] means many different things: “a long time”, “eternity”, “forever”, “future”, “a perpetual amount of time”, “a long time ago”, “world”, and “universe” among other things.

21:34 “And Avraham stayed in the land of the Philistines for a long time.”(NIV revised) – Rashi proves that he must have been there for at least 26 years. This means that Yitzchak was over 30 years old when he was sacrificed.

The Seventh Aliyah, 22:1-10

22:1 “Some time later God tested Avraham. He said to him, ‘Avraham!’ ‘Here I am’, he replied.”(NIV revised) – It was God who tested Avraham, according to his attribute of righteousness. That is why the name Elohim is used here.

This was the tenth test that was placed before our father Avraham. It was the last and defining test that he had to go through for his faith to be complete, as it is written in James 2:22,

“You see that his faith and his actions were working together, and his faith was made complete by what he did.”(NIV)

Avraham’s faith was made complete by this test in the sense that it reached its full potential. After this test, Avraham’s trust reached a level that needed no more tests; it had achieved its goal.

The Hebrew word for test means temptation as well. In spite of the fact that the same word is used to describe both meanings, there is a great difference between them. It is the motive behind the action that determines whether it is a test or a temptation. If the purpose of it is for the man to fall, it is a temptation. But if the purpose is for the man to reach a higher level, then it is a test. God can not tempt anyone, as it is written in James 1:13-15,

“Let no one say when he is tempted, ‘I am tempted by God’; for God cannot be tempted by evil and He Himself tempts no one; but each one is tempted when he is drawn out and enticed by his own lust.”(MRC)

The purpose of a test is to lift up. When someone has passed a test, he always receives a great reward. The greatest reward any man can get is to have a complete and fully mature character, as it is written in James 1:2-4,

“Consider it all joy, my brethren, when you fall into various temptations, knowing that the proof of your faith produces patient endurance. And let patient endurance have its perfect work, that you may have reached the goal and be complete, lacking in nothing.”(MRC)

If a man does not pass the test that the Eternal brings him, he has two choices. One is to keep going through the test until he passes it. The other is to be disqualified. The majority of the children of Israel who came out of Egypt failed the test 10 times, see Numbers 14:22, and therefore they could not come up to the higher level that the Eternal had prepared for them in the promised land.

If you are in the midst of a test right now, do not complain, but place your trust in the Eternal and his promises so that you can come up to a higher level in the Kingdom and your character will become more like His Son’s, which is the goal of your life, according to Romans 8:29, where it is written,

“For whom He foreknew, He also foreordained to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the first-born among many brethren;”(MRC)

22:2 “He said, "Now take your son, your only son, whom you love, even Yitzchak, and go into the land of Moriyah. Offer him there for an ascension offering on one of the mountains which I will tell you of."”(HNV revised) – The Hebrew word which has been translated as “Now” is na, which has two principal meanings, “please” and “now”. The text can therefore be translated as “Please take your son…”. That means that it was not a command that Avraham received to sacrifice his son, but a gentle request. “If you would, could you be so kind as to do this?” HaShem wanted, then, to test Avraham’s honesty and to see if he really sought His will and not his own. Furthermore, it had been a long time since Avraham had sacrificed an animal to HaShem. Here HaShem asked him to sacrifice his own son, whom he loved more than anything.

If you are not willing to sacrifice that which you love the most for HaShem’s sake, then you have something in your life that stands ahead of Him and it has become an idol to you. HaShem must have first place in our lives and if anything threatens that place, he will ask us to sacrifice it. Are you willing?

The region of Moriah is Yerushalayim, as it is written in 2 Chronicles 3:1,

“Then Shelomoh began to build the house of HaShem at Yerushalayim in mount Moriah, where HaShem appeared unto David his father; for which provision had been made in the Place of David, in the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite.”(JPS revised)

According to a Midrash,[24] the word Moriah in this text meant that in this place all of Israel would receive instruction (hora’ah).

Yitzchak’s sacrifice stands as one of the foundational pillars of Judaism. By the merit of this sacrifice, there is a morning prayer offered up daily, seeking the benevolence of the Eternal over one’s life.

Avraham had a covenant with the Eternal. The Eternal needed his complete obedience in order to fulfill His plans for Avraham’s life and through him to produce the Seed that the woman would bring forth, according to the promise to Adam and Chavah in Genesis 3:15. Just as Avraham gave his only son, so HaShem gave His Only Son as a sin offering, not only for Avraham’s descendants, but for the whole world, see John 3:16.

22:3 “Early the next morning Avraham got up and saddled his donkey. He took with him two of his servants and his son Yitzchak. When he had cut enough wood for the ascension offering, he set out for the place that God had told him about.”(NIV revised) – Avraham’s loving obedience caused him to get up early in order to fulfill his Lord’s wishes with diligence.

The Hebrew word that is translated in verses 3, 4, 9, and 14 with “place” is makom.[25] In many cases, this word refers to the Eternal, and it is one of His many names, especially when used in connection to the temple. The name speaks of His all-encompassing presence, but also of his revealed presence in one certain place.

22:4 “On the third day Avraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off.”(JPS revised) – Here we see a connection between the sacrificing of the father’s only son and the third day. It foreshadows the resurrection of the Messiah on the third day, see Hosea 6:2. The expression “third day” – in Hebrew yom ha-shlishi – appears 28 times in 26 verses in the Hebrew Scriptures.

God had promised to show Avraham the place. Therefore it says that he saw the place. He saw it in a special way, by prophetic revelation. The Midrash[26] says that he saw a glory cloud covering the mountain.

22:5 “He said to his servants, ‘Stay here with the donkey while I and the boy go over there. We will worship and then we will come back to you.’”(NIV) – According to Rashi, the servants where Yishma’el and Eliezer. Since they had not seen anything special, they could not come up to the place that was designated for worship.

The expression “we will come back” shows us that Avraham believed that the Eternal would resurrect his son, according to the promises that He had given him, as it is written in Hebrews 11:17-19,

“By faith Avraham, when God tested him, offered Yitzchak as a sacrifice. He who had received the promises was about to sacrifice his one and only son, even though God had said to him, ‘It is through Yitzchak that your offspring will be reckoned.’ Avraham reasoned that God could raise the dead, and figuratively speaking he did receive Yitzchak back from death.”(NIV revised)

22:6 “And Avraham took the wood of the ascension offering, and laid it upon Yitzchak his son; and he took in his hand the fire and the knife; and they went both of them together.”(JPS revised) – The wood was laid on Yitzchak as a picture of the beam of wood that would be laid on the Son, as it is written in John 19:17,

“They took Yeshua alongside, therefore, and He went out, bearing His own beam of wood, to the place called the Place of a Skull, which is called in Ivri, Gulgolta.”(MRC revised)

 “they went both of them together” – This sentence is used twice, here and in verse 8. That teaches us two things. For one thing, Yitzchak was in complete unity with his father in thought and purpose. He was no longer a child. He was over 30 years old and his desire was to fulfill his heavenly Father’s will and to obey his earthly father.

This teaches us that the Messiah would go up to the place of sacrifice in complete unity with his heavenly Father, as it is written in John 16:32,

“Behold, an hour is coming, and has come, in order for you to be scattered, each one to his own things, and you will leave Me alone. Yet I am not alone, because the Father is with Me.”(MRC)

It is also written in 2 Corinthians 5:19,

“that is, that God was in Messiah reconciling the world to Himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and has put the word of reconciliation in us.”(MRC)

22:7 “Yitzchak spoke up and said to his father Avraham, ‘Father?’ ‘Yes, my son?’ Avraham replied. ‘The fire and wood are here’, Yitzchak said, ‘but where is the lamb for the ascension offering?’”(NIV revised) – Notice that Yitzchak asked about a lamb.

22:8 “And Avraham said: ‘God will provide Himself the lamb for an ascension offering, my son.’ So they went both of them together.”(JPS revised) – Avraham said that God would provide for Himself a lamb.

“my son” – These words are also repeated in the text. This repetition speaks of both Yitzchak and the Messiah, God’s Son. According to the Messianic Writings you can see that the expression “God’s Son” is synonymous with “Messiah”, see Matthew 16:16; 26:63; Luke 4:41; 22:66-70; John 1:49; 20:31.

Midrash literature says that Avraham reveals to Yitzchak at this point, that he will have to be sacrificed as an ascension offering. He accepts and gives himself over willingly to his father’s will.

In order for an offering to be pleasing to the Eternal, it has to be given with joy. If someone sacrifices with sorrow in his heart, the offering will not be received. At this point both Avraham and Yitzchak were forced to overcome their negative feelings and set their minds on the purposes of the Eternal, which are always good. Avraham thought that God was mighty even to raise his son from the dead. Faith in HaShem for the resurrection of the son is what saves all the descendants of Avraham who will be like the stars.

There were two ingredients in the faith that Avraham had concerning his son:

  • He believed that HaShem would give him a son in a supernatural way.

  • He believed that HaShem would raise his son from the dead.

All the descendants of Avraham have the same faith. They believe that God’s Son was conceived in a supernatural way and that HaShem has raised him from the dead, as it is written in Romans 4:16-25,

“On account of this it is of faith, that it may be according to grace, in order that the promise may be secure to all the seed, not only to those who are of the Torah, but also to those who are of the faith of Avraham, who is the father of us all, as it is written, ‘a father of many nations I have placed you,’ in the sight of Him Whom he believed, God, Who gives life to the dead and calls into existence the things which do not exist. He against hope believed in hope, to become a father of many nations, according to that which had been spoken, ‘so shall your seed be.’ And without becoming weak in faith he contemplated his own body, now as good as dead since he was about a hundred years old, and the deadness of Sarah’s womb; but as to the promise of God, he did not stagger in unbelief, but was empowered by faith, giving glory to God, and being fully persuaded that what He had promised, he was powerful also to work. Therefore also ‘it was reckoned to him as righteousness.’  But it was not written on account of him only, that it was reckoned to him, but on our account also, to whom it is about to be reckoned, as those who believe in Him Who raised Yeshua our Lord from the dead, Who was delivered up because of our transgressions, and was raised because of our justification.”(MRC revised)

22:9 “And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Avraham built the altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Yitzchak his son, and laid him on the altar, upon the wood.”(JPS revised) – The Hebrew word that is translated here as “bound”, akad[27], does not occur anywhere else in Scripture. Rashi says that the word means that the hands and feet were tied behind the back. This was the only occurrence of its kind, just as the death of the Messiah was the only death of its kind.

However, there is another variation of the root of the same word, akudim, “striped” which is repeated seven times in connection with the herd that Ya’akov was earning with his work and in that passage the male goats are mentioned specifically in the first text, Genesis 30:35, 39, 40; 31:8 (two), 10, 12.

Rashi says that they are called akudim because they had white heels, i.e. the body part that was bound (okdim) was clearly visible.

The lamb that Avraham said that the Eternal would provide for himself refers to the Korban Pesach, the Passover sacrifice, and the male goats that were mentioned in the story of Ya’akov refer to the sacrifices that were made on Yom Kippur, the day of atonement, when two goats were sacrificed to cover and remove the sins of Israel that had been committed during the year. That was the message that Yochanan ben Zecharyah had, according to John 1:29, where it is written,

 “On the next day he saw Yeshua coming toward him, and said, ‘Behold, the Lamb of God (Pesach) Who takes away the sin of the world (Yom Kippur)!’”(MRC revised)

Through the death of the Messiah, the prophecy of the Lamb at Pesach that delivered the first born in Egypt from death is fulfilled. The firstborn represents all the people. Through the death of the Messiah, the prophecy of the goats at Yom Kippur that take away Israel’s sins is also fulfilled.

22:10 “And Avraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son.”(JPS revised) – In the same way, the heavenly Father “stretched out his hand” to sacrifice His Son on the same place, see Isaiah 53:10.

22:11 “And the angel of HaShem called unto him out of heaven, and said: ‘Avraham, Avraham.’ And he said: ‘Here am I.’”(JPS revised) – Here the Name YHWH is found for the first time in this chapter. That Name represents the Most High’s compassion. “God – Elohim” had asked Avraham to sacrifice his son. Elohim is the name that represents the Most High’s attribute of righteousness. It was the righteousness of God that required a human sacrifice in order for the repentant sinner to be saved. Someone had to die in his place. The wages of sin is death and if the sinner repents the righteousness of the Most High demands that someone pays in his stead. If there is no substitute, there are no grounds for forgiveness.

In Romans 3:24-26, it is written,

“being justified as a gift by His grace through the redemption which is in Messiah Yeshua; Whom God displayed publicly as a propitiation in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, because in the forbearance of God He passed over the sins previously committed; for the proof of His righteousness at the present season, for His being just, and making just the one who has faith in Yeshua.”(MRC revised)

The death of Yeshua is the ONLY righteous basis for the Eternal to forgive the sinner who wants to turn from his sins.

Now the Most High is showing himself in his attribute of compassion and tells Avraham not to sacrifice his son. In his heart he had already done it. So symbolically his son came back to life.

There is however, a Midrash that tells of Yitzchak’s soul having left him in order to later return to him[28]. Another Midrash says that Yitzchak really was sacrificed in order to be raised back to life[29] and return on the scene later in Genesis 24:62.

22:13 “And Avraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram caught in the thicket by his horns. And Avraham went and took the ram, and offered him up for an ascension offering in the stead of his son.”(JPS revised) – A ram is not a lamb. Yitzchak and Avraham had asked about a lamb, but HaShem did not provide a lamb for them, instead he provided a ram. The lamb was kept for another occasion…

The ram is used as an instrument for temple service to the Eternal. The two horns were used as shofars which would be blown during the feasts of the Eternal, and especially during Shavuot (Pentecost), Yom Teruah (the Feast of Trumpets) and Yom haKippurim (the Day of Atonements). These are the most important times when it comes to blowing the shofar. The hipbones served as flutes in the temple. The hides were made into drums. Certain intestines were used as harps and others as lyres in the temple.

“ascension offering in the stead of his son.” – Avraham sacrificed the ram instead of his son. That is pointing to the Messiah Yeshua’s substitutionary sacrifice for the good of many, as it is written in Matthew 20:28,

“just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many.”(MRC)

22:14 “And Avraham called that place HaShem Will Provide. As it will be said today, ‘On the mountain HaShem will see”(Auth) – “HaShem Will Provide” is in Hebrew YHWH Yireh which means, in its simplest translation,  “HaShem will choose (select) and see” (Targum and Rashi). The word yireh also means “provide”, since seeing ahead of time also means providing for oneself or preparing.

HaShem will therefore keep his eyes on that place in order to choose it and watch over the sacrifices that the children of Israel have and will make in that place during the Messianic Kingdom. It also means that on that mountain, HaShem would provide Himself with the Lamb that had been asked for earlier. It also means that in that place, the Eternal will reveal Himself, not only to the children of Israel, but to the whole world, as it is written in Isaiah 52:10,

“HaShem hath made bare His holy arm in the eyes of all the nations; and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God.”(JPS revised)

In Psalm 48:3-9, it is written,

“God is in her citadels; he has shown himself to be her fortress. When the kings joined forces, when they advanced together, they saw and were astounded; they fled in terror. Trembling seized them there, pain like that of a woman in labor. You destroyed them like ships of Tarshish shattered by an east wind. As we have heard, so have we seen in the city of HaShem Tsevaot, in the city of our God: God makes her secure forever. Selah”(NIV revised)

In that place HaShem showed publicly, not only his righteousness, but also his compassion when He gave the Messiah as a sacrifice. And on that same place He will one day reveal his righteousness when he comes to judge the nations who have conspired together in the last battle against Israel and his compassion when he comes to save those who long for Him through His Messiah.

22:16b “your only son”(NIV) – Three times we find the same expression in this chapter, v.2, 12 and 16. This points to God’s Only Son, Yeshua HaMashiach.

22:19a “Then Avraham returned to his servants”(NIV revised) – And where did Yitzchak go? Suddenly he disappears from the scene of the Torah, not to be seen again until his bride, Rivkah, is ready, see 24:62. In the same way, Yeshua, after his death and resurrection, was taken up from the scene of this world. He will not be revealed again until the bride is without spot or wrinkle or any such thing, ready for the wedding of the Lamb.

[1]       Babah Metziah 86b; Shabbat 134b

[2]       Babah Metsiah 86b

[3]       Bereshit Rabbah 50:2.

[4]       Rabbi Shelomoh ben Yitzchak, during the 11th century in France. He is one of the most aknowledged rabbis, mostly due to his commentaries on the Chumash (five books of Moses) which is done out of the peshat level, the literary, simple, interpretation level. His commentaries are used today in every yeshivah (rabbinical Bible seminary) in the world.

[5]       The Targum texts are official paraphrased translations into Aramaic of the Tanach (OT). They were read in ancient times in the synagogues after the Hebrew Bible text so that the people who did not know Hebrew very well could understand it.

[6]       Strong 2529 chem'ah  chemah, khem-aw', khay-maw', From the same root as H2346; curdled milk or cheese: - butter.

[7]       Talmud Chulin 115b.

[8]        Isserles about Shulchan Aruch, YD, 89:2.

[9]       From the Hebrew word kasher, also pronounced as kosher, which means appropriate (for Jewish consumption).

[10]     Strong 4150 mo‛ed  mo‛ed  mo‛adah, mo-ade', mo-ade', mo-aw-daw', From H3259; properly an appointment, that is, a fixed time or season; specifically a festival; conventionally a year; by implication, an assembly (as convened for a definite purpose); technically the congregation; by extension, the place of meeting; also a signal (as appointed beforehand): - appointed (sign, time), (place of, solemn) assembly, congregation, (set, solemn) feast, (appointed, due) season, solemn (-ity), synagogue, (set) time (appointed).

        Strong 3259 ya‛ad, yaw-ad', A primitive root; to fix upon (by agreement or appointment); by implication to meet (at a stated time), to summon (to trial), to direct (in a certain quarter or position), to engage (for marriage): - agree, (make an) appoint (-ment, a time), assemble (selves), betroth, gather (selves, together), meet (together), set (a time).

[11]     Rosh HaShanah11A.

[12]     Bereshit Rabbah 49:25.

[13]     Strong H7812 shachah, shaw-khaw', A primitive root; to depress, that is, prostrate (especially reflexively in homage to royalty or God): - bow (self) down, crouch, fall down (flat), humbly beseech, do (make) obeisance, do reverence, make to stoop, worship.

[14]     Strong G4352 proskuneō,  pros-koo-neh'-o, From G4314 and probably a derivative of G2965 (meaning to kiss, like a dog licking his master’s hand); to fawn or crouch to, that is, (literally or figuratively) prostrate oneself in homage (do reverence to, adore): - worship.

[15]     Bereshit Rabbah 50:10.

[16]     Babah Batrah 91a.

[17]     Bereshit Rabbah 51:10.

[18]     Bereshit Rabbah 52:1.

[19]     Strong H5030 nabiy',  naw-bee', From H5012; a prophet or (generally) inspired man: - prophecy, that prophesy, prophet. Strong H5012 naba', naw-baw', A primitive root; to prophesy, that is, speak (or sing) by inspiration (in prediction or simple discourse): - prophesy (-ing) make self a prophet.

[20]     Pirkei deRabbi Eleazar 30.

[21]     Strong H6711 tsachaq, tsaw-khak', A primitive root; to laugh outright (in merriment or scorn); by implication to sport: - laugh, mock, play, make sport.

[22]     Strong H6963 qol  qol, kole, kole, From an unused root meaning to call aloud; a voice or sound: -  + aloud, bleating, crackling, cry (+ out), fame, lightness, lowing, noise, + hold peace, [pro-] claim, proclamation, + sing, sound, + spark, thunder (-ing), voice, + yell

[23]     Strong H5769 ‛ôlâm  ‛ôlâm, o-lawm', o-lawm', From H5956; properly concealed, that is, the vanishing point; generally time out of mind (past or future), that is, (practically) eternity; frequentative adverbially (especially with prepositional prefix) always: - always (-s), ancient (time), any more, continuance, eternal, (for, [n-]) ever (-lasting, -more, of old), lasting, long (time), (of) old (time), perpetual, at any time, (beginning of the) world (+ without end). Compare H5331, H5703.
Strong H5956 ‛a
lam, aw-lam', A primitive root; to veil from sight, that is, conceal (literally or figuratively): -  X any ways, blind, dissembler, hide (self), secret (thing).

[24]     Bereshit Rabbah 55:7.

[25]     Strong H4725 mâqôm  mâqôm  meqômâh  meqômâh, (1,2) maw-kome', (3,4) mek-o-mah'

From H6965; properly a standing, that is, a spot; but used widely of a locality (generally or specifically); also (figuratively) of a condition (of body or mind): - country, X home, X open, place, room, space, X whither [-soever].

[26]     Bereshit Rabbah 55:7; Pirkei deRabbi Eleazar 31.

[27]     Strong H6123 ‛âqad, aw-kad', A primitive root; to tie with thongs: - bind.

[28]     Pirkei d´Rabbi Eliezer.

[29]     Mechilta d´Rabbi Shimón bar Yochai.