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Parashah 24 VaYikra

Leviticus 1:1 – 6:7 (5:26)

By Dr. K. Blad  ©

Second edition 2013-14

Lucrative copying not permitted 

Torah Readings:

1.               1:1-13

2.            1:14 – 2:6

3.            2:7-16

4.            3:1-17

5.            4:1-26

6.            4:27 – 5:10

7.            5:11 – 6:7 (5:26 Hebrew version)

8.            Maftir: 6:5-7 (5:24-26 Heb.)


Haftarah: Isaiah 43:21 – 44:23


means “and he called”


In Leviticus 7:37 there is a summary of the different offerings that had been presented in the first seven chapters of the book, as it is written,

This is the law of the ascension offering, of the meal offering, and of the sin offering, and of the guilt offering, and of the consecration, and of the sacrifice of peace offerings”(HNV revised)

1.      Olah – ascension offering, Leviticus 1:1-17; 6:8-13 (6:1-6 Heb.)

2.      Minchah – meal offering, Leviticus 2:1-16; 6:14-18 (4:7-11 Heb.)

3.      Chatat – sin (offering), Leviticus 4:1 – 5:13; 6:24-30 (6:17-23 Heb.)

4.      Asham – guilt (offering), Leviticus 5:14 – 6:7 (5:26 Heb.); 7:1-10

5.      Miluim – consecration (offering), Exodus 29:1-37; Leviticus 6:19-23 (6:12-16 Heb.)

6.      Shlamim – peace (offering), Leviticus 3:1-17; 7:11-36

Olah and minchah are related. Chatat and asham are related. When we speak of them as related, it means that they are similar and they are offered for similar reasons.

The First Aliyah, 1:1-13

1:2    “Speak to the children of Yisra'el, and tell them, ‘When anyone of you offers an offering to HaShem, you shall offer your offering of the cattle, from the herd and from the flock.”(HNV revised) – The Hebrew word that has been translated as “offering” is korban,[1] which means “sacrifice”, “slaying”, “offering”. It comes from the word karav,[2] which means “draw near”, “come near”, “present oneself”, “be near”. This teaches us that the purpose of the offerings is to draw near to the Eternal and to present oneself unto him. The only way to come before the Eternal is through sacrifice. Sacrifice is necessary in order to draw near to him and to be in his presence, as it is written in Exodus 23:15b; 34:20b and in Deuteronomy 16:16b,

and they shall not appear before HaShem empty”(HNV)

The ascension offering is voluntary and can be presented by anyone; man, woman, Israelite, or gentile.

1:3    If his offering is an ascension offering from the herd, he shall offer a male without blemish. He shall offer it at the door of the Tent of Meeting, that he may be accepted before HaShem.”(HNV revised) – Both the ascension offering and the meal offerings are called korbanot, which is the plural of korban, and they serve for drawing near to the Eternal, see 2:1. This text teaches us that the person who brings this voluntary offering, has to take the animal to the entrance of the tent of meeting himself. The Hebrew word that is translated as “burnt offering” or “ascension offering” is olah.[3] The root of the word olah is alah,[4] which means “go up”, “rise up”, “climb”, “ascend”, “sprout”, “come forth”, “grow”, “vanish”, “become large”, “increase”, “turn to”, “immigrate to the land of Israel”. An oleh is a person who makes aliyah, one who goes up to read the Torah in the synagogue or one who immigrates to Israel. Both are called oleh. The plural form of this word is olim. This teaches us that the olah offering is an offering that ascends to heaven. It also lifts the one who makes the sacrifice. It must, therefore, be offered by fire. The olah offering, the ascension offering, is for the rich, and the minchah offering is for the poor, see 5:11

In Genesis 4:3-5, it is written,

As time passed, it happened that Kayin brought an offering (minchah) to HaShem from the fruit of the ground. Hevel also brought some of the firstborn of his flock and of the fat of it. HaShem respected Hevel and his offering (minchah), but he didn’t respect Kayin and his offering (minchah). Kayin was very angry, and the expression on his face fell.”(HNV revised)

The word used in this text is minchah,[5] which means “gift”, “sacrifice”, “offering”, “meal offering”. The word minchah is normally used to describe offerings that have no blood, but in this case we see that it can include blood sacrifice as well.

What is the difference between the olah offering and the minchah offering?

In the olah offering, it is an animal that is presented and in the minchah offering it is mainly plants from the ground. Olah and minchah are the first offerings to be mentioned in the Torah. One example is Kayin and Hevel, who presented minchah. The word olah is found for the first time in Genesis 8:20, where it is written,

Noach built an altar to HaShem, and took of every clean animal, and of every clean bird, and offered ascension offerings on the altar.”(HNV revised)

The distinctive characteristic of the ascension offering is that the entire animal is consumed by fire. In this chapter there are three different kinds of olah mentioned:

1:3 – cattle.

1:10 – small livestock.

1:14 – birds.

The value of the olah offering ranges from the most expensive to the most inexpensive. Thereafter the Eternal continues by offering the opportunity of presenting an offering to those who cannot afford to buy even a young dove. They can present flour, oil, incense, and salt, see 2:1, 4, 13. This teaches us that financial status is no hindrance in presenting offerings by which to draw near to the Eternal. The rich give more and the poor give less, but HaShem sees to the heart and knows when a person has sacrificed within his means and when he hasn’t, as it is written in Luke 21:1-4,

“He looked up, and saw the rich people who were putting their gifts into the treasury. He saw a certain poor widow casting in two small brass coins. He said, ‘Truly I tell you, this poor widow put in more than all of them, for all these put in gifts for God from their abundance, but she, out of her poverty, put in all that she had to live on.’”(HNV revised)

An offering that is not given with generosity will not be accepted by HaShem, since he loves a cheerful giver, see 2 Corinthians 9:7.

 “a male without blemish” – The olah offering must be a male animal without blemish, see 1:10; 3:1, 6; 4:3, 23, 28, 32; 5:15, 18; 6:6 etc. This speaks of the Mashiach who was a man without sin, as it is written in 1 Peter 1:18-19,

 “knowing that you were redeemed, not with corruptible things, with silver or gold, from the useless way of life handed down from your fathers, but with precious blood, as of a lamb without spot, the blood of Messiah”(HNV)

“offer it at the door of the Tent of Meeting” – Offerings were made just before the entrance of the sanctuary. This teaches us that Yeshua was offered up before HaShem. It is not possible for the Messiah to have been nailed to a tree behind the temple. In that case this prophecy would not have been fulfilled. All animals were sacrificed at the entrance of the sanctuary, never behind it. Therefore both the church of the holy sepulcher and the garden tomb are disqualified as possible locations for the crucifixion. It had to take place in front of the entrance to the temple, i.e. directly in line with the entrance of the temple in the direction of the Mount of Olives where the red heifer was sacrificed. Along that same line, a little further up, Yeshua was hung on a tree together with two thieves. It is possible that it was on the same tree that he had walked passed and cursed, just a few days earlier, see Mark 11:21. Adam took leaves from a fig tree to hide his nakedness. It is therefore possible that it was this type of tree that became instrumental in man’s redemption.

It is highly probable that the tree of life stood on the same place where the temple was built later. The tree of the knowledge of good and evil probably stood on the Mount of Olives, where Yeshua died. If this really is the case, it would mean that sin was atoned for in the same place where it entered the world.

The horizontal beam that Yeshua was nailed to could possible have been made of cedar tree, according to Leviticus 14:4, 6.

This verse also teaches us that an offering serves as an entry-gate for drawing near to the Eternal. The offering itself is like a door, a means by which to draw near. That is why it is called korban. When an offering is given according to the instructions of the Torah and with an upright heart, with joy, purity, and dedication, it always pleases the Eternal. All offerings are not pleasing to him.

1:4    He shall lay his hand on the head of the ascension offering, and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him.”(HNV revised) – This laying on of hands means primarily three things:

·                Identification – the animal represents the one who lays his hands on it. They are one.

·                Transferring – sin is transferred to the animal.

·                Substitution – the animal dies in man’s place.

“to make atonement for him” – The Hebrew word that is translated as “atonement” is kapar,[6] which means “atone”, “cover over”. This teaches us that the ascension offering also has an element of atonement with the meaning that it creates forgiveness for sin; it covers faults. This is a shadow of the Mashiach whose death not only covers sins, but it removes them. All these offerings are shadows of the Messiah’s sacrifice.

1:5    “He shall kill the bull before HaShem. Aharon’s sons, the priests, shall present the blood and sprinkle the blood around on the altar that is at the door of the Tent of Meeting.”(HNV revised) – The person who brings the offering may perform the slaughter if he wants to, but only the priests can offer the blood on the altar. The animal is sacrificed before HaShem. This teaches us that the Messiah’s death took place in the presence of HaShem. The blood is sprinkled on the altar. Rashi says that the priest stood by the altar and tossed the blood from a bowl toward the lower half of the altar, toward its corners. Rav Shabtai Bass[7] explains that the blood was tossed toward two of the corners of the altar, the northwest and the southeast corners. This caused the blood to be sprinkled on all four sides of the altar in two throws. This ceremony represents the death of the Mashiach.

1:6    And he shall flay the ascension offering, and cut it into its pieces.”(JPS revised) – The whole animal was not sacrificed at once, but rather piece by piece. When it is written “into its pieces” it means that there are natural places where animals are cut apart. According to Talmud,[8] there are ten such places. It is the same way when a person dedicates himself completely. The Eternal will then require one part after the other of our being until we are completely consecrated for his use.

1:7    And the sons of Aharon the priest shall put fire upon the altar, and lay wood in order upon the fire.”(JPS revised) – According to a Midrash, the fire on the altar never ceased burning until the temple was built in Yerushalayim. The fire fell from heaven. When Shelomo’s temple was built, the fire fell from heaven on the altar once again. The priests kept the fire burning constantly. However, this fire went out during the days of Kings Menasheh’s rule. The Torah says here, however, that it was the duty of the priests to put wood and light a fire on the altar in a normal way (Rashi).

Fire is a form of energy. In order for an offering to be pleasing, it must be given with joy, enthusiasm, and with fire in our hearts. This fire is love, as it is written in Song of Songs 8:6-7,

Set me as a seal on your heart, as a seal on your arm; for love is strong as death. Jealousy is as cruel as She'ol; its flashes are flashes of fire, a very flame of HaShem. Many waters can’t quench love, neither can floods drown it. If a man would give all the wealth of his house for love, he would be utterly scorned.”(HNV revised)

This teaches us that Yeshua died with joy and that he had the fire of love in his heart. This can also be seen in Psalm 118:24, which he sang before he died, see Matthew 26:30. The same thing happened at Yitzchak’s akedah, binding. Both Avraham and Yitzchak had joy in their hearts when the sacrifice was to be performed, see Genesis 22. An offering is only pleasing when there is a fire of joy and love in the heart. That is why alcohol free wine was never permitted as an offering in the temple. The wine had to be strong and had to have “fire” in it, see Numbers 28:7.

1:8    “and Aharon’s sons, the priests, shall lay the pieces, the head, and the fat in order on the wood that is on the fire which is on the altar”(HNV revised) – The first part of the animal to be offered, not counting the blood, is the head. Alef is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. The meaning of this letter is “bullhead”, but it also means “one” and “the first”. Therefore, the first thing to be offered is the head. The head of the bull represents the mind of man. That is the first thing that one has to dedicate to the Eternal so that it can be “consumed”, as it is written in Romans 12:1-2,

Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, sanctified, acceptable to God, which is your reasonable (in the mind) service. Don’t be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may prove what is the good, well-pleasing, and perfect will of God.”(HNV revised)

and the fat… on the wood” – This is referring to the fat that protects the intestines. There are three kinds of fat in the body.

  • Energy that has been stored in the body in the form of fat, mainly just under the skin.

  • The brown fat that produces heat in the body. The brown fat burns the energy that is in nutrients. Babies have a lot of this brown fat. A person who easily gains weight without having eaten a lot of rich food, has a lack of brown fat in his body. One who can eat a lot without gaining weight has a lot of brown fat.

  • The fat that surrounds and protects the intestines from being battered and from harmful movements.

The fat that is burned on the altar is that which protects the intestines. It is placed on the head to cover the area of the bull’s head that was cut. According to Rashi, this is done to show respect for the Most High.

1:9    but its innards and its legs he shall wash with water. The priest shall burn the whole on the altar, for an ascension offering, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor to HaShem.”(HNV revised) – The intestines and the feet were to be washed in water and thereafter burned on the altar. Then it became a pleasing sacrifice to the Eternal. This is not because the Eternal enjoys the death of an innocent animal as it is consumed to ashes. He is not sadistic. Neither does he need offerings, as it is written in Psalm 50:7-13,

Hear, my people, and I will speak; Yisra'el, and I will testify against you. I am God, your God. I don’t rebuke you for your sacrifices. Your ascension offerings are continually before me. I have no need for a bull from your stall, nor male goats from your pens. For every animal of the forest is mine, and the cattle on a thousand hills. I know all the birds of the mountains. The wild animals of the field are mine. If I were hungry, I would not tell you, for the world is mine, and all that is in it. Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?”(HNV revised)

The pleasing aroma does not come from the animal that has been cruelly sacrificed, but from the heart of the person who presents the offering to the Eternal. If a man’s heart is not dedicated to Him, then his offering is not acceptable. That is why it is written that the Eternal looked to Hevel and his offering. The primary thing that he saw was the man and secondly he saw the offering. The offering is an expression of a loving heart.

On the other hand, we can also refer to the Messiah Yeshua’s sacrifice, which is projected in all the offerings. When the Eternal sees an animal that has been offered properly, he remembers the offering of his Son. Thus he is pleased since the result of that offering is extremely positive for all of creation.

Personal Application of the Ascension Offering

The olah offering symbolizes the complete dedication of our lives. We give HaShem everything that we are. We give ourselves to Him. The main thing that we give is not our possessions or our abilities, but ourselves as an ascension offering that burns before him until nothing remains. We do not belong to ourselves.

When we dedicate ourselves, we are presented before him. After that we will, piece by piece, experience the olah offering. It begins with us giving our lives, which is symbolized by the blood.

After we have given him our lives, he will cut us into parts. First he takes our head, our mind, and consumes it until there is nothing left. Our prayer will then be, “Not my will, but Yours be done. Things are not as I understand them, but as you understand them and as they are revealed in your Torah”.

The next step in the offering of our being is when the fat is removed. This is the protection that covers our intestines (our motives, purposes, and emotions). Thus we become sensitive. Our numbness toward heavenly things is removed. We can compare this with the circumcision of the heart, see Deuteronomy 10:16. It can also be likened to a protective wall of arguments that is removed from our emotions and our mind, as it is written in 2 Corinthians 10:3-6,

“For though we walk in the flesh, we don’t wage war according to the flesh; for the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh, but mighty before God to the throwing down of strongholds, throwing down imaginations and every high thing that is exalted against the knowledge of God, and bringing every thought into captivity to the obedience of Messiah; and being in readiness to avenge all disobedience, when your obedience will be made full.”(HNV revised)

This teaches us that all disobedience in society can be fought and destroyed through an assembly that has experienced olah, the ascension offering. In their complete dedication, their excuses for disobedience have been consumed by heavenly fire. The world looks the way it does because of a lack of obedience in the congregations of the Eternal’s children.

The next step in the ascension offering is when the intestines and feet are washed in water. This represents the cleansing process of the Torah, as it is written in John 15:3,

“You are already pruned clean because of the word which I have spoken to you.”(HNV)

In Ephesians 5:26, it is written,

“that he might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the washing of water with the word”(HNV)

The intestines represent motives, emotions, desires, and so on. The feet represent our lifestyle, our walk, our way of life. Our motives and our walk must be cleansed by the Torah in order to be offered up to the Eternal as a pleasing sacrifice. HaShem will never be pleased with our own desires if they have not first been washed by the Torah. Neither does he accept our lifestyle when it has not been purified by the Word. Everything must go through the process of correction that takes place in a Spirit led Torah study. Both the Torah and the Spirit are symbolized by water in the Scriptures.

In the olah offering, everything must be consumed. This means that you cannot save anything in your life for yourself if you are to be pleasing to the Eternal. Everything must be consecrated to your heavenly Father, part by part.

When you come to the Eternal the first time, with joy and longing to serve him, to be his servant and friend, then he receives your life. He gives you a new life instead of the one that you gave him. This new life is the resurrection life of Yeshua the Messiah. Thereafter he will demand one part after another of your being, so that you can deepen your dedication until there is nothing left of you. Then you will be completely dependent on the new resurrection life that is in Mashiach. When you have come to this level of the ascension offering, you will say that your life holds no value to you, as it is written in Acts 20:24,

But I put no value on my life, if only at the end of it I may see the work complete which was given to me by the Lord Yeshua, to be a witness of the good news of the grace of God.”(BBE revised)

In Matthew 10:39, it is written,

“He who finds his life will lose it; and he who loses his life for my sake will find it.”(HNV)

In Luke 22:42, it is written,

saying, ‘Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done.’”(HNV)

The Second Aliyah, 1:14 – 2:6

1:14If his offering to HaShem is an ascension offering of birds, then he shall offer his offering of turtledoves, or of young pigeons.”(HNV revised) – According to Rashi, the turtledoves, which in this case are only males, were always adult. The pigeons were always young.

2:1    “When anyone offers an offering of a meal offering to HaShem, his offering shall be of fine flour; and he shall pour oil on it, and put frankincense on it.”(HNV revised) – The Hebrew word that is translated “anyone” is nefesh, which means “soul”. Meal offering, in Hebrew minchah is the offering of the poor, who cannot afford to sacrifice an animal. Talmud[9] brings out the fact that when the poor give a minchah offering, it is considered to be as though they give their own souls to the Eternal.

The meal offering must consist of wheat flour, which is considered to be the best kind of flour. Barley is cheaper, see 2 Kings 7:1; Revelation 6:6. In contrast to other grain, the wheat was not tossed out in great quantities on the field when it was sown, but it was planted into the ground one by one. By this we learn that the farmer mentioned in the parable in Matthew 13:3-9 was sowing barley.

The fine flour that this is talking about, in Hebrew solet, is the best wheat flour, the finest. All three qualities of olive oil serve for the meal offering. The incense was entirely consumed. Every meal offering must be salted. All of these things are manmade products.

Verses 1-10 describe five kinds of meal offerings. All are based on the finest wheat flour. The difference in the offerings is in the way that they are prepared. According to Leviticus 14:21, a meal offering had to include at least a tenth of an efah of fine flour and one log of oil. One efah is approximately 24.8 liters, according to a calculation by Rav A. H. Nae. One log is approximately six beitsim, “eggs”, which is between 344 and 602 ml.

According to Rashi, the oil was poured over all the flour and the incense was placed on part of the flour. According to another interpretation, the flour was mixed with the oil. This verse teaches us that one who is not a priest can prepare this offering.

2:2    “He shall bring it to Aharon’s sons the priests; and he shall take his handful of its fine flour, and of its oil, with all its frankincense; and the priest shall burn the memorial of it on the altar, an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor to HaShem.”(HNV revised) – According to Rashi, an Israelite was permitted to go eleven cubits (approximately 5.5 meters) from the entrance into the court of the tabernacle. There the priest took a handful of the flour using the three middle fingers. The flour was then consumed on the altar together with all the incense. The rest was eaten by the priests.

The following are the five kinds of meal offerings:

  • Solet – a tenth of an efah of fine flour, together with a log of oil and incense, 2:1-3.

  • Challot – ten cakes of fine flour mixed with oil and baked in an oven, 2:4.

  • Rekikim – ten wafers of fine flour rubbed and baked in an oven, 2:4.

  • Machabat – Crispy wafers of fine flour mixed with oil and fried in oil in a shallow frying pan that was in the temple, 2:5-6.

  • Marcheshet – wafers of fine flour mixed with oil and deep fried in oil in a deep frying pan that was in the temple, 2:7-10.

The Third Aliyah, 2:7-16

2:8    You shall bring the meal offering that is made of these things to HaShem: and it shall be presented to the priest, and he shall bring it to the altar.”(HNV revised) – According to Talmud,[10] the priest touched the southwest corner of the altar with the meal offering.

2:11No meal offering, which you shall offer to HaShem, shall be made with yeast; for you shall burn no yeast, nor any honey, as an offering made by fire to HaShem.”(HNV revised) – According to Rashi, anything sweet that comes from fruit can be called devash, “honey”. This is evident since the next verse says that it can serve as a firstfruits offering, and a firstfruits offering does not contain bee-honey, but sweet extract from fruit.

2:12As an offering of firstfruits you shall offer them to HaShem: but they shall not come up for a sweet savor on the altar.”(HNV revised) – There was yeast in the firstfruits bread that was offered on Shavuot, see 23:17. The honey from the fruit is given as a firstfruits offering from the sweet fruit of trees, such as figs and dates. Honey represents a person who only lives for pleasure. Yeast represents a proud and puffed up person. Neither one of these kinds of people is pleasing to the Eternal.

2:13 “Every offering of your meal offering you shall season with salt; neither shall you allow the salt of the covenant of your God to be lacking from your meal offering. With all your offerings you shall offer salt.”(HNV revised) – All offerings were salted before they were placed on the fire of the altar. According to Rambam,[11] the animal sacrifices were salted at the ramp of the altar, but the bird and meal offerings were salted up on the altar. Salt has the ability to preserve, and that is why it represents covenant and peace, as it is written in Mark 9:50,

“Salt is good, but if the salt has lost its saltiness, with what will you season it? Have salt in yourselves, and be at shalom with one another.”(HNV)

In 2 Chronicles 13:5, it is written,

 Ought you not to know that HaShem, the God of Yisra'el, gave the kingdom over Yisra'el to David forever, even to him and to his sons by a covenant of salt?”(HNV revised)

2:14 “If you offer a meal offering of first fruits to HaShem, you shall offer for the meal offering of your first fruits grain in the ear parched with fire, bruised grain of the fresh ear.”(HNV revised) – This text is referring to the omer offering, the barley offering that is given in the temple after the Pesach offering. In this text it is called the “firstfruits offering”, or “the first harvest”, in Hebrew bikurim. Barley is the first type of grain to ripen each year in Israel. This was the only offering of barley that was made in the temple. All the other meal offerings were made of wheat. According to Talmud,[12] the grain was dried by fire in a pipe that was used for roasting, and after that they were crushed and ground. This offering symbolizes the Messiah’s resurrection, as it is written in 1 Corinthians 15:20, 23,

 But now Messiah has been raised from the dead. He became the first fruits of those who are asleep… But each in his own order: Messiah the first fruits, then those who are Messiah’s, at his coming.”(HNV)

Personal Application of the Meal Offering

The animals offered in the olah offering represent human life. When one dedicates an animal to be completely consumed by fire, one sends a message to the Eternal that says, “I belong to you completely”. The ascension offering represents our total dedication.

The produce offered in the minchah offering represents man’s work. When we give these products to the Eternal, we say, “My work belongs completely to you”. The meal offering represents our work before the Eternal.

The ascension offering is not eaten, but the largest part of the meal offering was eaten by the priests. Only one handful was offered on the altar together with the incense. This teaches us that the work that we do for the Eternal is expressed mainly through our service to the leaders he has placed over us.

The incense represents prayer and worship to the Eternal, see Psalm 141:2; Revelation 5:8. The fact that all the incense had to be given to the Eternal teaches us that we cannot give worship or pray to men, but only to the Eternal.

The gentile man Cornelius, prayed prayers to the Eternal and gave gifts to the Jewish people. This was received as a minchah offering in heaven, as it is written in Acts 10:4,

He, fastening his eyes on him, and being frightened, said, ‘What is it, Lord?’ He said to him, ‘Your prayers and your gifts to the needy have gone up for a memorial before God.’”(HNV revised)

One cannot serve the Eternal without serving people, and especially the leaders that the Eternal has put into place, as it is written in 2 Corinthians 8:1-5,

“Moreover, brothers, we make known to you the grace of God which has been given in the assemblies of Macedonia; how that in much proof of affliction the abundance of their joy and their deep poverty abounded to the riches of their liberality. For according to their power, I testify, yes and beyond their power, they gave of their own accord, begging us with much entreaty to receive this grace and the fellowship in the service to the sanctified ones. This was not only as we had hoped, but first they gave their own selves to the Lord, and to us through the will of God.”(HNV revised)

First of all, they gave themselves to the Lord, which is the olah offering representing total dedication to the Eternal. Then they gave themselves to the apostles, the messengers, whom the Eternal had placed over them. One cannot be completely dedicated to the Eternal without serving and submitting to those leaders whom the Eternal has put into place. There can be dedication and submission to leaders without dedication to the Eternal, but there can be no dedication to the Eternal without submission to leadership. One who has given himself completely to the Eternal will automatically submit to the leadership the He has put into place. It is impossible to be faithful to the Eternal without being faithful to his messengers and mediator. It is impossible to be faithful to the Eternal while denying Yeshua, who has been placed by Him as Lord over all. Those who believe that they can come to the Father without going through Yeshua are defying the order that the Father has instituted. It is the same with the servants that Yeshua the Messiah has given to his assembly, see Ephesians 4:11.

In Leviticus 2:4, it is written that the wafers of the minchah offering must be unleavened. Yeast symbolizes evil and hypocrisy. This teaches us that when we serve the Eternal and his leaders, it must be honestly, purely, without evil, without personal selfish motives, without hypocrisy, without self-promotion, without pride, without hidden agendas, without the desire to be seen, and without desiring a better position.

The minchah offering symbolizes our works. When our works are not perfect, they have yeast in them, as it is written in Revelation 3:2,

“Wake up, and keep the things that remain, which you were about to throw away, for I have found no works of yours perfected before my God.”(HNV revised)

The works that please the Father are the Messiah’s works, as it is written in Revelation 2:26,

“He who overcomes, and he who keeps my works to the end, to him I will give authority over the nations.”(HNV)

It says “my works”. It is talking about Mashiach’s works, not works that man has come up with, but those that God has ordered. Those works are minchah offerings that are pleasing to the Eternal.

In 1 Corinthians 3:12-13, it is written,

“But if anyone builds on the foundation with gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay, or stubble; each man’s work will be revealed. For the Day will declare it, because it is revealed in fire; and the fire itself will test what sort of work each man’s work is.”(HNV)

We see here that our works will be tested by fire. If they are works that have been done with good materials, then we will receive a reward. If they are works of bad materials, we will lose that reward on the Day of Judgment. This is not talking about salvation. Salvation is given by grace and reward is given because of works.

In 1 Corinthians 15:58, it is written,

Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the Lord’s work, because you know that your labor is not in vain in the Lord.”(HNV)

Here it is written that work IN the Lord is not in vain. It does not say FOR the Lord, but IN the Lord. Perfect works are those that are done IN the Lord, led by the Spirit of the Eternal in obedience to his commandments.

In John 4:23-24, it is written,

But the hour comes, and now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to be his worshippers. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.”(HNV revised)

The Father seeks worshippers. A worshipper is one who has given himself completely to Him; one who has gone through the olah experience. Only one who has gone through the olah can serve the Eternal with his works. That is why the olah offering is given before the minchah offering. The Eternal seeks hearts who are dedicated and willing to do his will, as it is written in 2 Chronicles 16:9a,

For the eyes of HaShem run back and forth throughout the whole earth, to show himself strong in the behalf of them whose heart is perfect toward him.”(HNV revised)

Dear Reader, have you given you heart to the Eternal? Are you completely His? Is there any part of your life that you have not dedicated to your Father? Have you presented yourself as an olah offering? In that case, you can serve him in the right way. If not, your works and your service to the Eternal will not be completely pleasing to him. There are services performed unto the Eternal without a personal relationship with Him, as it is written in Luke 15:29-31,

But he made answer and said to his father, ‘See, all these years I have been your servant, doing your orders in everything: and you never gave me even a young goat so that I might have a feast with my friends: But when this your son came, who has been wasting your property with bad women, you put to death the fat young ox for him.’ And he said to him, ‘Son, you are with me at all times, and all I have is yours.”(BBE)

Serving and obeying the Father without a relationship with him is not the same thing as doing it with that relationship as foundation. The difference between these two cannot always be seen outwardly. It has to do with the heart, the inner attitude. The most important thing of all is our relationship with our heavenly Dad and with his son Yeshua the Messiah, who is sent by Him. In that relationship, the highest life is found, eternal life, as it is written in John 17:3,

This is eternal life, that they should know you, the only true God, and him whom you sent, Yeshua the Messiah.”(HNV revised)

In Matthew 7:22-23, it is written,

“Many will tell me in that day, ‘Lord, Lord, didn’t we prophesy in your name, in your name cast out demons, and in your name do many mighty works?’ Then I will tell them, ‘I never knew you. Depart from me, you who work iniquity.’”(HNV)

In this text we see that many people perform works, and even great works, in Yeshua’s name without having the most important thing, an intimate relationship with him. We have said earlier that the Hebrew concept of knowing is not having intellectual knowledge about someone, but it entails personal experience.

The Greek word that is translated as “iniquity” is anomia,[13] which means “unlawfulness”, “lawlessness”, “breaking the law”. This teaches us several things. According to the Torah, no one has the right to act in the name of another without being sent by him, or having received power of attorney by that person to act in his name. In this case we see that many are going to say to Yeshua on the Day of Judgment that they have performed wonderful works in his name. Still, they acted against the Torah because they did not have a relationship with him and neither had they received power of attorney to prophecy and do miracles in his name. They sought their own glory and did these works to win merit for themselves. It is possible to do miracles and to prophesy in the name of Yeshua (and its linguistic derivatives) without those works being pleasing to the Father. What is the secret? The secret is obedience to the Torah that is founded on a personal relationship with HaShem and his Mashiach. This text also teaches us that obedience to the commandments of the Torah is related to our relationship with the Messiah Yeshua. One who says that he knows the Messiah and breaks the Eternal’s commandments, which were given through Moshe, is lying, as it is written in 1 John 2:3-5,

“This is how we know that we know him: if we keep his commandments. One who says, ‘I know him,’ and doesn’t keep his commandments is a liar, and the truth isn’t in him. But whoever keeps his word, God’s love has most assuredly been perfected in him. This is how we know that we are in him”(HNV revised)

In 1 John 3:24, it is written,

He who keeps his commandments remains in him, and he in him. By this we know that he remains in us, by the Spirit which he gave us.”(HNV revised)

The Messiah’s commandments are the same as Moshe’s commandments, for God cannot contradict himself or change his mind.

 The Fourth Aliyah, 3:1-16

3:1    If his offering is a sacrifice of peace offerings; if he offers it from the herd, whether male or female, he shall offer it without blemish before HaShem.”(HNV revised) – This offering is also called korban, which is translated as “offering”. This teaches us that the main purpose behind this offering is also for us to be able to draw near to the Eternal. This is the main purpose of all the offerings. The shelamim offering, also called peace offering, or “fellowship offering”, is made voluntarily, just like the olah and mincha offerings. In the olah offering, only male animals were offered, but in the shelamim offering either male or female animals can be offered. This teaches us that the olah offering is connected in a special way to the death of Yeshua the Messiah, because he is a man. The animals cannot have any blemish if they are to be acceptable. The Eternal is worthy of the best. That is why it is an insult to give him animals that are not without blemish, as it is written in Malachi 1:8-10,

When you offer the blind for sacrifice, isn’t that evil? And when you offer the lame and sick, isn’t that evil? Present it now to your governor! Will he be pleased with you? Or will he accept your person?’ says HaShem of Hosts. ‘Now, please entreat the favor of God, that he may be gracious to us. With this, will he accept any of you?’ says HaShem of Hosts. ‘Oh that there were one among you who would shut the doors, that you might not kindle fire on my altar in vain! I have no pleasure in you,’ says HaShem of Hosts, ‘neither will I accept an offering at your hand.’”(HNV revised)

This offering is called peace offering because it is based on a peaceful relationship with the Eternal, which comes from having been justified by faith, as it is written in Romans 5:1,

Being therefore justified by faith, we have shalom with God through our Lord Yeshua the Messiah”(HNV revised)

Only part of the peace offering was given to the temple. The rest was eaten anywhere in the court or within the walls of Yerushalayim. Through this offering one could enjoy fellowship with the Eternal and dine with family and friends. This offering brings enjoyment to one’s intimate relationship with the Eternal.

3:5    “Aharon’s sons shall burn it on the altar on the ascension offering, which is on the wood that is on the fire: it is an offering made by fire, of a sweet savor to HaShem.”(HNV revised) – The Hebrew word that is translated “on” is ’al. Normally this means “on” or “above”, but it can also mean “besides” or “beyond”, as in Leviticus 2:2. According to Rashi, in this case it should be understood as “beyond” or “besides”. This means that the part of the peace offering that was removed to be burned was placed on the altar after the daily ascension offering was presented. This teaches us that there is no true enjoyment of fellowship with the Eternal if one is not first completely dedicated to Him.

This also teaches us that the death of the Messiah Yeshua is the foundation upon which we can have a relationship with the Eternal and enjoy his presence.

  • The olah offering says: My whole life belongs to you.

  • The minchah offering says: I serve you with my whole life.

  • The shelamim offering says: You are my joy and my enjoyment. I want to be near you together with my family and my friends, take time in your presence, worship you, and receive your blessings.

3:17 “It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings, that you shall eat neither fat nor blood.”(HNV) – This command applies also after the destruction of the temple and not only in the land of Israel, but outside of it as well.

The Fifth Aliyah, 4:1-26

4:2-3 “Speak to the children of Yisra'el, saying, ‘If anyone sins unintentionally, in any of the things which HaShem has commanded not to be done, and does any one of them: if the anointed priest sins so as to bring guilt on the people, then let him offer for his sin, which he has sinned, a young bull without blemish to HaShem for a sin offering.”(HNV revised) – Now we move on to the chatat offering. The word chatat,[14] “mistake”, “wrong”, “sin”, comes from the root chatah,[15] which means “to mistake”, “to miss”, “to sin”. In Leviticus 4:23, this offering is also called korban. This teaches us that this is also a means by which to draw near to the Eternal. In these verses however, the word korban, “offering”, is not used, as it is in the texts about olah and minchah. It merely says le-chatat, “for sin”. In the Septuagint it is simply translated with the Greek word for “sin”. The terminology used in the Greek translations for “sin offering” is just “sin”. From this perspective we can understand the Greek text in 2 Corinthians 5:21, where it is written,

For him who knew no sin he made to be sin on our behalf; so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.”(HNV revised)

It means that the Messiah was made to be a sin offering, le-chatat, for our sake. It is not that he was made into sin, in that meaning of the word, but the expression is clearly referring to the sin offering found in Leviticus 4.

There are two kinds of sin offerings, chatat and asham. The first atones for certain sins that are made by mistake. The second atones for certain sins that are done on purpose. Chatat atones for sins committed that deserve the punishment of karet (being cut off) if they had been done willfully. There are forty-three sins of that kind. The majority of these sins have to do with forbidden sexual relations. The chatat offering only atones for these sins when they were done in ignorance. This teaches us that ignorance does not clear the sinner from responsibility. Anyone who sins because he didn’t know any better is guilty before the Eternal.

First it mentions the anointed priest who sins, and thus brings guilt over the people. Since the High Priest represents the people, his sin affects the whole nation. The sin can also be that the High Priest misinterprets something in the Torah and then follows a halachah that contradicts the Torah, which will result in the people doing the same thing.

“the anointed priest” – In Hebrew it is ha-kohen ha-mashiach. This is the first time that the expression ha-mashiach, “the anointed” is found in the Torah. This expression is found three times in this aliyah; in verses 3, 5, and 16. It is very significant that the first time the Messiah is mentioned in the Torah is in connection with the sin offering! Here we have three witnesses, which show that the Messiah’s main assignment is to atone for the world through his own sin offering, “that whosoever believes in him should not perish but have everlasting life”, John 3:16b.

“if the anointed (HaMashiach) priest sins so as to bring guilt on the people” – Here it says that HaMashiach is the one who has sin, and that sin is brought over the people. The Messianic scenario is inverted. The sin of the people came over the Messiah Yeshua and his righteousness came over the people.

In verse 5, it is written,

The anointed (HaMashiach) priest shall take some of the blood of the bull, and bring it to the Tent of Meeting.”(HNV revised)

Here it says that HaMashiach takes the blood to the tabernacle. In the same way, Yeshua the Messiah took his own blood to the heavenly tabernacle.

In verse 16, it is written,

The anointed priest (HaMashiach) shall bring of the blood of the bull to the Tent of Meeting”(HNV revised)

Some of the blood was taken to the mishkan, the tabernacle. That speaks of the moment when the Messiah Yeshua took his own blood to the heavenly tabernacle as it is written in Hebrew 9:12,

nor yet through the blood of goats and calves, but through his own blood, entered in once for all into the Most Consecrated Place, having obtained eternal redemption.”(HNV revised)

4:4    “He shall bring the bull to the door of the Tent of Meeting before HaShem; and he shall lay his hand on the head of the bull, and kill the bull before HaShem.”(HNV revised) – According to Rashi, the bull had to be three years old.

4:11-12 “The bull’s skin, all its flesh, with its head, and with its legs, its innards, and its dung, even the whole bull shall he carry forth outside the camp to a clean place, where the ashes are poured out, and burn it on wood with fire. Where the ashes are poured out it shall be burned.”(HNV) – When the blood is brought into the tabernacle, the rest of the animal cannot be eaten. It must be burned outside the camp, see Leviticus 4:21; 6:30; 16:27; Hebrews 13:11-12. This speaks of the Messiah’s death, whose blood was taken into the heavenly sanctuary. He died outside the city gates, near the altar that was on the Mount of Olives.

All the offerings are shadows of the Messiah. Because of the Messiah’s sacrifice, these offerings have validity before the Eternal.

4:13 “If the whole congregation of Yisra'el sins, and the thing is hidden from the eyes of the assembly, and they have done any of the things which HaShem has commanded not to be done, and are guilty”(HNV revised) – According to Rashi, the congregation mentioned here is not the whole people, but it is the Sanhedrin, which had seventy-one members. This was the governing body of the nation, which had legislative, condemning, and in some cases, executive authority. If this governmental court of law established an incorrect halachah (Jewish practical law) and by this mistake permitted something, which the Torah forbade, a young bull was sacrificed for the sin of the whole people.

4:22 “When a ruler sins, and unwittingly does any one of all the things which HaShem his God has commanded not to be done, and is guilty”(HNV revised) – If a leader, a king, or a member of the Sanhedrin sinned by mistake in any of the prohibitions that are punished by karet when done willfully, he must offer a goat as sin offering.

4:24He shall lay his hand on the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where they kill the burnt offering before HaShem. It is a sin offering.”(HNV revised) – The chatat offering is slaughtered on the same place as the olah offering, on the north side of the altar. This is so that the repentant sinner will not be put to shame, see verses 29, 33. This way, others will not be able to see if it is an ascension offering or a sin offering, and there is no room for evil thoughts or tongues. Thus HaShem protects the reputation of the repentant sinner.

The Sixth Aliyah, 4:27 – 5:10

4:27 “If anyone of the common people sins unwittingly, in doing any of the things which HaShem has commanded not to be done, and is guilty”(HNV revised) – If a member of the people sins by mistake in any of the prohibitions that deserve karet when done willfully, he must offer a female goat as a sin offering in order to be forgiven.

In Luke 23:34a, it is written,

Yeshua said, ‘Father, forgive them, for they don’t know what they are doing.’”(HNV)

In 1 Timothy 1:13, it is written,

although I was before a blasphemer, a persecutor, and insolent. However, I obtained mercy, because I did it ignorantly in unbelief.”(HNV)

These two texts show us that forgiveness is given when there is ignorance on the part of the sinner. If someone really doesn’t know what he is doing when he sins, he can be forgiven, but if he sins, knowing full well what he is doing, and does it with the desire to challenge the Eternal, he can never be forgiven.

In Numbers 15:27-31, it is written,

“if one person sin unwittingly, then he shall offer a female goat a year old for a sin-offering. The priest shall make atonement for the soul who errs, when he sins unwittingly, before HaShem, to make atonement for him; and he shall be forgiven. You shall have one law for him who does anything unwittingly, for him who is home-born among the children of Yisra'el, and for the stranger who lives as a foreigner among them. But the soul who does anything with a high hand, whether he is home-born or a foreigner, the same blasphemes HaShem; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people. Because he has despised the word of HaShem, and has broken his commandment, that soul shall utterly be cut off; his iniquity shall be on him.”(HNV revised)

Anyone who commits something with a high hand, in other words challenging the Eternal, will never be forgiven. If you are well aware of the seriousness of the sin you are about to commit, and in spite of that you still commit the sin, you will not receive forgiveness.

In Mark 3:28-30, it is written,

“‘Most assuredly I tell you, all of the children of men’s sins will be forgiven them, including their blasphemies with which they may blaspheme; but whoever may blaspheme against the Ruach HaKodesh never has forgiveness, but is guilty of an eternal sin’ — because they said, ‘He has an unclean spirit.’”(HNV)

Blasphemy against the Spirit of Sanctity can never be forgiven. It brings guilt unto eternal judgment. In this case the blasphemy was against the Spirit since they said that Yeshua had an unclean spirit. In other words, those who saw the miracles and the wisdom that came from the Messiah and then said that those miracles and that teaching had a satanic source, knowing full well what they were saying, could not be forgiven such a sin.

In Matthew 12:32, it is written,

“Whoever speaks a word against the Son of Man, it will be forgiven him; but whoever speaks against the Ruach HaKodesh, it will not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in that which is to come.”(HNV)

This text teaches us that one who blasphemes the Messiah can receive forgiveness, but not if he blasphemes the Spirit of Sanctity. This teaches us that the Spirit of Sanctity is above the Son of Man. Since blasphemy of HaShem cannot be forgiven, see Numbers 15:30, neither can blasphemy of the Spirit be forgiven. From this we can come to the conclusion that the Spirit of Sanctity is the revealed Presence of HaShem himself.

Repentance is the result of a cooperation between the Eternal and man. If the Eternal pulls away from man, it is impossible for him to repent. In Romans 2:4, it is written that it is God’s goodness that leads to repentance. Without that goodness we would never reach true repentance. When man gives Him one finger, HaShem takes the whole hand. When man gives Him his hand, He will embrace all of him.

 Sins that one can receive forgiveness for are those committed by mistake, in ignorance, or because of weakness. However, sins committed in willful rebellion against HaShem, with complete knowledge of the seriousness of the sin, cannot be forgiven. One example is Yehudah, Yeshua’s talmid. He received many opportunities to repent, but in the end he didn’t want to and thus he lost the possibility of repentance. It would have been better for him if he had never been born. Let us fear HaShem so that we will not sin!

 The offering that is presented when any of the forty-three sins mentioned is committed by mistake remains unchanging. Both rich and poor alike must offer the same thing. In chapter 5, however, we find another type of chatat offering that varies depending on the financial status of the sinner. This offering is called korban oleh ve-yored, “offering that goes up and down”, i.e. that “varies” depending on the income of the individual. This offering is given when one of the following three sins has been committed:

  • If an oath is sworn about a false testimony. This is when someone has been witness to a financial business and then swears falsely before the Beit Din (court), saying one was not a witness to it, Leviticus 5:1.

  • If one has entered the temple or eaten of an offering while being tumah (ritually unclean), Leviticus 5:2-3.

  • If one swears a false oath without knowing that it is false. For example, if one swears to not having done a certain thing and then later realizes that one had unknowingly done it, Leviticus 5:4.

5:3    Or if he touches the uncleanness of man, whatever his uncleanness is with which he is unclean, and it is hidden from him; when he knows of it, then he shall be guilty.”(HNV) – The “uncleanness of man” that is mentioned here is a corpse, or the remains of a corpse, which is the primary source of ritual uncleanness. If someone who is ritually unclean by having come in contact with a corpse, or even only with someone else who had come in contact with a corpse, and then enters the sanctuary, he is guilty, see Numbers 9:7; 19:13. In order to be clean from tumah, one must, among other things, dip the whole body into a mikveh, a ritual bath.

5:4    “Or if anyone swears rashly with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatever it is that a man might utter rashly with an oath, and it is hidden from him; when he knows of it, then he shall be guilty of one of these.”(HNV) – According to Rashi, this means swearing an oath to do good or evil to oneself.

5:5    “It shall be, when he is guilty of one of these, he shall confess that in which he has sinned”(HNV) – Confession of sin is one of the conditions for forgiveness, as it is written in 1 John 1:9,

“If we confess our sins, he is faithful and righteous to forgive us the sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.”(HNV)

Three things are done when presenting a sin offering:

·         Laying on of hands – in relation to deeds.

·         Confession of sin – in relation to words.

·         Burning of the intestines – in relation to thoughts.

These are the three areas in which man sins: deeds, words, and thoughts. Therefore he must be judged in these three areas.

The Seventh Aliyah, 5:11 – 6:7 (5:26 Heb.)

 The last offering mentioned here is asham, guilt. The guilt offering consists of a male goat or a lamb. It is offered if one of the following five sins has been committed:

·         Taking advantage of the consecrated food or consecrated objects in the temple, 5:14-16.

·         Stealing and then swearing falsely saying one hasn’t stolen, Leviticus 6:1-7.

·         Cleansing for leprosy, Leviticus 14:12-18.

·         Fornication with someone else’s maidservant, Leviticus 19:20-21.

·         Uncleanness during one’s time as a nazir, Numbers 6:9-12.

Besides this offering, in Leviticus 5:17-19 there is a type of guilt offering called asham talui, “potential guilt”. This is presented if one is not sure that a sin requiring the chatat offering was committed. This offering is not final. If the person who is in doubt later finds out that he really has sinned, then he must give a chatat offering for that sin. This teaches us that lack of diligence concerning spiritual things is considered a crime against the Eternal.

5:16He shall make restitution for that which he has done wrong in the consecrated thing, and shall add a fifth part to it, and give it to the priest; and the priest shall make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt offering, and he will be forgiven.”(HNV revised) – Restitution for damages is a condition for forgiveness of sins.

5:17If anyone sins, and does any of the things which HaShem has commanded not to be done; though he didn’t know it, yet he is guilty, and shall bear his iniquity.”(HNV revised) – In spite of the fact that he is not conscious of it, he is still guilty. There is no excuse for not studying the Torah, as our Rabbi says according to what is written in Matthew 12:3, 5; 19:4; 22:31,

“Have you not read?”

In Matthew 9:13, it is written,

But you go and learn…”

The Eternal expects therefore, that the people study Torah. There is no excuse for not having studied and thus sinning on account of ignorance. One who sins ignorantly because he has been careless in his Torah studies, bears guilt.

6:2    If anyone sins, and commits a trespass against HaShem, and deals falsely with his neighbor in a matter of deposit, or of bargain, or of robbery, or has oppressed his neighbor”(HNV revised) – Here we learn that one who deceives his neighbor trespasses against HaShem.

6:4-5then it shall be, if he has sinned, and is guilty, he shall restore that which he took by robbery, or the thing which he has gotten by oppression, or the deposit which was committed to him, or the lost thing which he found, or any thing about which he has sworn falsely; he shall restore it even in full, and shall add a fifth part more to it. To him to whom it belongs he shall give it, in the day of his being found guilty.”(HNV) – First of all, he must return that which was stolen. If he cannot do this, he must make restitution for it. In both cases, he must add 20% to the value. This teaches us that one cannot steal an object and then simply pay 120% of its value in order to keep the object. The one who has the object in his possession, must return it. It is only in the case when this is impossible that restitution may be made in another way.

Personal and Messianic Application of the Sin and Guilt Offerings

There are two problems in man: sin and the sins. Sin is the sinful urge, the yetser ha-rah, the flesh. The sins are the acts that one commits because of the evil urge. A newborn baby has a sinful urge, but it has no sins, because it has not yet committed any transgression. The sin offering, chatat, and the guilt offering, asham, cover sin and the sins that were committed, eliminating their consequences, but they do not remove them totally. But, the Messiah’s death does not only remove the sins and all the consequences that the animal sacrifices couldn’t eliminate, but it also deals with the very source of sin, the evil nature that was activated in man in the Garden of Eden.

The chatat offering was presented in order to cover the negative consequences of the evil urge, sin. The asham offering was given to cover the consequences of the sinful actions. The sacrifices are connected with the death of the Messiah. All of them are shadows of the Messiah’s sacrifice. Thanks to the Messiah’s death, there is complete and eternal freedom from sin and from the sins. Without the Messiah’s death, neither the sins nor the sinful nature, yetser ha-rah, would be finally removed from man.

The end result of the Messiah’s work will not be visible until the resurrection. In spite of that, we can already now experience part of the power of the new life that removes sin from our lives. There is still sin in us, but its influence is drastically reduced because of the Messiah’s Spirit in us. Therefore sin no longer has power over us. If we sin, it is because we have chosen to do so, not because we are still slaves to sin, see Romans 6.

The offerings in the temple are not only audio-visual means of teaching man truths about the seriousness of sin, its deadly consequences, the righteousness and mercy of the Eternal. They are also means to connect spiritually to Messiah’s eternal sacrifice in heaven. The temporary sacrifices activate the effects of the eternal sacrifice both in this world and the world to come. Therefore, the Jew who presents his sacrifice in the temple according to the rules will automatically receive the benefits of the sacrifice of the Messiah Yeshua.

Through Yeshua’s death, HaShem revealed forever that he is a righteous judge. The death of an animal cannot remove sins. Neither can animals, legally, completely represent a person. An animal is not a man. Only a perfect and sinless person can die in the place of another person. HaShem cannot forgive a sinner without a righteous foundation for it. Someone has to pay for the repair of the damages. Without Yeshua’s death, the highest Judge would be unrighteous when he forgives sinners, as it is written in Proverbs 17:15,

He who justifies the wicked, and he who condemns the righteous, both of them alike are an abomination to HaShem.”(HNV revised)

In Exodus 23:7, it is written,

“Keep far from a false charge, and don’t kill the innocent and righteous: for I will not justify the wicked.”(HNV)

In Romans 3:25-26, it is written,

“whom God set forth to be an atoning sacrifice, through faith in his blood, for a demonstration of his righteousness through the passing over of prior sins, in God’s forbearance; to demonstrate his righteousness at this present time; that he might himself be just, and the justifier of him who has faith in Yeshua.”(HNV revised)

Without Yeshua’s death, neither HaShem’s complete righteousness nor his complete compassion can be revealed. Through the offerings in the temple HaShem forgave the sinners because of Yeshua’s eternal sacrifice whenever He saw an honest repentant heart in the one who presented a sin or guilt offering. Yeshua’s death is the foundation for eternal forgiveness. The sin and guilt offerings are shadows of, reminders of and links to the true sacrifice. The true sacrifice does not remove the shadows. Shadows are what give depth to the picture. HaShem gave us the shadows so that through them we would be able to extend our knowledge of the depth of our beloved Mashiach’s death.

There are several examples of how the Messiah’s followers continued to sacrifice in the temple after the resurrection, see Matthew 5:18; Acts 21:20, 23-24; Numbers 6:1-21; 24:17-18. Since nothing in the Torah will be abolished by the Messiah until heaven and earth pass away, the sacrifices will be restored in the temple which the Messiah Yeshua will build after his second coming, see Ezekiel 43:18-27, 44:27-29, 45:17, 46:13-15. This means that there will be animal sacrifices, and even sin and guilt offerings during the Messianic Reign, the Thousand Year Reign.

Out of the 613 commandments that are in the Torah, three of them are found in Beresheet, and 111 in Shemot. Altogether, that makes 114. There are 247 commandments in VaYikra, 95 positive commands and 152 prohibitions. The list that we give after each Parashah goes by the order presented in Sefer HaChinuch. It is based on the classification that was done by Rambam (Maimonides) in his book, Sefer HaMitzvot.

Commandments number 115-130 of the 613 are found in this Parashah.

  1. The command to offer the ascension offering (olah) according to the regulations of the Torah, Leviticus 1:3.

  2. The command to offer the meal offering (minchah) according to the regulations of the Torah, Leviticus 2:1.

  3. The prohibition of offering yeast and honey on the altar, Leviticus 2:11.

  4. The prohibition of offering anything without salt, Leviticus 2:13.

  5. The command to add salt to the offerings, Leviticus 2:13.

  6. The command that the highest court (the Sanhedrin) present an offering when it has passed a faulty halachic decision, Leviticus 4:13.

  7. The command to offer a sin offering (chatat) when an individual has, by mistake, committed a crime that is punishable by karet, Leviticus 4:27.

  8. The command about being a witness in court, Leviticus 5:1.

  9. The command about presenting an offering of varying value (korban oleh veyored) in certain specific cases, Leviticus 5:1.

  10. The prohibition of completely removing the head of a bird that is offered as a sin offering (chatat), Leviticus 5:8.

  11. The prohibition of pouring olive oil on the meal offering of a sinner (minchat choteh), Leviticus 5:11.

  12. The prohibition of placing incense on the meal offering of a sinner (minchat choteh), Leviticus 5:11.

  13. The command to repay the full value plus one fifth when an individual has eaten or used food or any of the other consecrated objects, Leviticus 5:15.

  14. The command to offer the guilt offering for certain specific cases of potential transgression (asham talui), Leviticus 5:17-18.

  15. The command to offer the guilt offering for certain specific cases of clear transgression (asham vadai), Leviticus 6:2 (5:21 Heb.).

  16. The command to return that which has been stolen, Leviticus 6:4 (5:23 Heb.).

[1]     Strong H7133 qorban qurban, kor-bawn', koor-bawn', From H7126; something brought near the altar, that is, a sacrificial present: - oblation, that is offered, offering.

[2]     Strong H7126 qârab, kaw-rab', A primitive root; to approach (causatively bring near) for whatever purpose: - (cause to) approach, (cause to) bring (forth, near), (cause to) come (near, nigh), (cause to) draw near (nigh), go (near), be at hand, join, be near, offer, present, produce, make ready, stand, take.

[3]     Strong H5930 ‛ôlâh  ‛ôlâh, o-law', o-law', Feminine active participle of H5927; a step or (collectively stairs, as ascending); usually a holocaust (as going up in smoke): - ascent, burnt offering (sacrifice), go up to. See also H5766.

[4]     Strong H5927 ‛âlâh, aw-law', A primitive root; to ascend, intransitively (be high) or active (mount); used in a great variety of senses, primary and secondary, literally and figuratively: - arise (up). (cause to) ascend up, at once, break [the day] (up), bring (up), (cause to) burn, carry up, cast up, + shew, climb (up), (cause to, make to) come (up), cut off, dawn, depart, exalt, excel, fall, fetch up, get up, (make to) go (away, up), grow (over), increase, lay, leap, levy, lift (self) up, light, [make] up, X mention, mount up, offer, make to pay, + perfect, prefer, put (on), raise, recover, restore, (make to) rise (up), scale, set (up), shoot forth (up), (begin to) spring (up), stir up, take away (up), work.

[5]     Strong H4503 minchâh, min-khaw', From an unused root meaning to apportion, that is, bestow; a donation; euphemistically tribute; specifically a sacrificial offering (usually bloodless and voluntary): - gift, oblation, (meat) offering, present, sacrifice.

[6]     Strong H3722 kâphar, kaw-far', A primitive root; to cover (specifically with bitumen); figuratively to expiate or condone, to placate or cancel: - appease, make (an) atonement, cleanse, disannul, forgive, be merciful, pacify, pardon, to pitch, purge (away), put off, (make) reconcile (-liation).

[7]     Siftei Chachamim.

[8]     Tamid 4:2 and Yomah 25b.

[9]     Menachot 104b.

[10]    Sotah 14b.

[11]    Asurei Mizbeach 5:3.

[12]    Menachot 66b.

[13]    Strong G458 ἀνομιìα anomia an-om-ee'-ah From G459; illegality, that is, violation of law or (generally) wickedness: - iniquity, X transgress (-ion of) the law, unrighteousness.

[14]    Strong H2403 chatòtòâ'âh chatòtòâ'th, khat-taw-aw', khat-tawth', From H2398; an offence (sometimes habitual sinfulness), and its penalty, occasion, sacrifice, or expiation; also (concretely) an offender: - punishment (of sin), purifying (-fication for sin), sin (-ner, offering).

[15]    Strong H2398 châtòâ', khaw-taw', A primitive root; properly to miss; hence (figuratively and generally) to sin; by inference to forfeit, lack, expiate, repent, (causatively) lead astray, condemn: - bear the blame, cleanse, commit [sin], by fault, harm he hath done, loss, miss, (make) offend (-er), offer for sin, purge, purify (self), make reconciliation, (cause, make) sin (-ful, -ness), trespassive.