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Parashah 30 Kedoshim

Leviticus 19:1 – 20:27

By Dr. K. Blad  ©

Second edition 2013-14

Lucrative copying not permitted. 

Torah Readings:

1.      19:1-14

2.      19:15-22

3.      19:23-32

4.      19:33-36

5.      20:1-7

6.      20:8-22

7.      20:23-27

8.      Maftir: 20:25-27


Haftarah: Amos 9:7-15 (A); Ezekiel 20:2-20 (S)


means “consecrated ones”


The First Aliyah, 19:1-14

19:2 “Speak to all the congregation of the children of Yisra'el, and tell them, ‘You shall be consecrated; for I HaShem your God am sacred.”(HNV revised) – According to a Midrash,[1] this text proves that when Moshe declared the Torah to the people he would not normally gather the whole congregation at once. Normally he would first meet with his brother Aharon, and in a very detailed way he would give him all that he had received from HaShem. After that, Aharon would sit at Moshe’s right side. Then Aharon’s sons, Eleazar and Itamar, would come, and Moshe repeated the teaching to them according to their ability to comprehend. Then they would sit near their father and their uncle Moshe, and the same section of the Torah would be repeated to the elders of Israel according to their ability to understand it. Finally Moshe would repeat the whole teaching to all the men among the people. This was the common way in which the Torah was conveyed to Israel. This means that Moshe heard the same lesson five times, once directly from HaShem and four times out of his own mouth.

At this occasion, however, Moshe receives the order to gather the whole congregation of Israel, including women and children. The reason for this is that this portion of the Torah contains a number of laws that apply to all the people. According to Rashi, it is also because the majority of the most important laws in the Torah are dependent on this Parashah. For instance, in this passage we can find the general law about loving one’s neighbor as oneself. We can also find commandments that are similar to the ten words that were also spoken to the whole congregation at Sinai.[2] This short Parashah contains a total of fifty-one commandments.

This verse teaches us that it is not only the priests and the Levites who are to live a consecrated life, but it applies to the whole congregation of Israel. Consecration means distancing oneself from customs that are practiced by people that are far from HaShem and to be actively following Him in obedience to His commandments.

19:3 “Each one of you shall respect his mother and his father. You shall keep my Shabbatot. I am HaShem your God.”(HNV revised) – The Hebrew word that is translated “respect” is yare,[3] which means “fear”, “revere”, “respect”. There are several differences between this commandment and the commandment found in Exodus 20:12, where it is written,

“Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land which HaShem your God gives you.”(HNV revised)

The Hebrew word that is translated “honor” is kavad,[4] which means “weigh heavy”, “be rich”, “be honored”, “be a burden”. In Exodus 20 it is written that we ought to honor our father and our mother. In Leviticus 19, however, it says that we ought to fear our mother and our father. To honor is not the same thing as to fear. To honor one’s parents means not only to show them respect but also to give them the material goods that they need and to meet their needs when it is necessary, as it is written in Matthew 15:3-6,

“He answered them, ‘Why do you also disobey the commandment of God because of your tradition? For God commanded, “Honor your father and your mother,” and, “He who speaks evil of his father or mother, let him be put to death.” But you say, “Whoever may tell his father or his mother, ‘Whatever help you might otherwise have gotten from me is a gift devoted to God,’ he shall not honor his father or mother,” You have made the commandment of God void because of your tradition.’”(HNV revised)

In this text we see that honoring one’s parents has to do with financial help. To honor one’s parents also means to obey them in the Lord, as it is written in Ephesians 6:1-3,

“Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right. ‘Honor your father and mother,’ which is the first commandment with a promise: ‘that it may be well with you, and you may live long on the earth.’”(HNV revised)

In the text in Exodus where it is a question of honoring one’s parents, the father is mentioned first and then the mother. The text in Leviticus, however, where it is talking about fearing or revering them, mentions the mother first and then the father. Is the mother to be feared more than the father?

We will present a couple of explanations for this. In general, it is easier to fear one’s father than one’s mother, in the meaning of respect and reverence, because of his masculine characteristics. A child could easily take advantage of his mother’s soft and kind character. It is easier to have a lack of respect for one’s mother than for one’s father. That is why the Torah puts the mother first, so that we will not avoid respecting our mothers, but will show the same respect for both our parents.

If we look at the context, we will also see that there are degrees of respect: mother, father, and HaShem. It is an inversed order of authority. According to this order a child will learn, in his childhood, who is over him. First the child will learn to revere his mother, who spends the most time with him in his first years of life. Then the child will learn to revere his father, and finally to revere HaShem.

This text teaches us that one way of revering HaShem is to keep the Shabbat. A Jew who does not keep the Shabbat does not fear HaShem. A non Jew who fears HaShem will keep the Shabbat according to the level he choses for his life.

To revere one’s parents means not contradicting what they have said. Neither may one say, “What dad has said now is correct.” If the parents have certain chairs that are reserved for them, the children should not sit in them.

The Hebrew text literally says, “A man shall revere his mother and his father…”. This teaches us that the married man has a greater responsibility to revere his parents than a married woman does. A married woman does not have to obey her parents when her husband is telling her something else. When a woman is married she leaves her place under her father’s authority and stands under her husband’s authority, as it is written in 1 Corinthians 11:3,

“But I would have you know that the head of every man is Messiah, and the head of the  (married) woman is the man, and the head of Messiah is God.”(HNV revised)

19:4 “Don’t turn to idols, nor make molten gods for yourselves. I am HaShem your God.”(HNV revised) – The root of the word that is translated “turn to” is panah,[5] which means “turn oneself to”, “turn one’s face to”, “look to”, “look on”. This means that it is forbidden to look with curiosity or to admire idols and statues. According to Rambam,[6] it also has the practical application that it is forbidden to read books, listen to speeches, or involve oneself in cults, religions, or philosophical teachings that are foreign to the Torah. This text also teaches us that tourist trips for the purpose of seeing the ruins of the Mayan idol temple in Central America, the pyramids in Egypt, Notre Dam in Paris, Buddhist temples in Asia, the Bahai temple in Haifa, or any other place of pagan idol worship are forbidden. When people admire or are amazed by the buildings of pagan gods and statues, they are breaking this commandment.

“nor make molten gods for yourselves” – It is forbidden to make idol images, even for non-Jews. That also means that it is forbidden to do commerce with idol images, images of saints, crucifixes, Buddha statues, and other pagan cultic objects. It is also prohibited for an Israelite to make any financial profit from the idol worship of pagans.

19:10 “You shall not glean your vineyard, neither shall you gather the fallen grapes of your vineyard; you shall leave them for the poor and for the foreigner. I am HaShem your God.”(HNV revised) – The Torah teaches that the poor must be treated well. HaShem has an especially sensitive heart for the needs of the weak. That is why he commands us to help the needy in a practical and material way.

19:11 “You shall not steal; neither shall you deal falsely, nor lie to one another.”(HNV) – The theft that is spoken of here has to do with material goods. Since there is more than one commandment that prohibits theft, they are interpreted as referring to different kinds of theft. The first prohibition of theft is found in the ten words, as it is written in Exodus 20:15,

“You shall not steal.”(HNV)

Since the punishment for intentionally breaking any of most of the commandments found in the ten words is death, it is interpreted as meaning that the type of theft mentioned there is theft of people, i.e. kidnapping. Kidnapping is a crime that deserves the punishment of death, as it is written in Exodus 21:16,

“Anyone who kidnaps someone and sells him, or if he is found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death.”(HNV)

In Leviticus 19, it is talking about theft of material goods. Taking anything that belongs to another is forbidden. Ya’akov lived with his father in law for twenty years. When he moved from him, he testified that he had not taken anything that belonged to Lavan, as it is written in Genesis 31:37,

“Now that you have felt around in all my stuff, what have you found of all your household stuff? Set it here before my relatives and your relatives, that they may judge between us two.”(HNV)

The way that Ya’akov was so careful not to take anything with him from Lavan’s home, not even a teaspoon or a pin, is a good example for all of us.

Time is something that HaShem gives every person. Therefore time is something that each one of us must invest properly so that it is not misused or lost. That is why it is forbidden to take time from anyone without first having permission.

Yosi approached Nisi, who is a very busy man, and asked his for time to have a five-minute conversation. Nisi agrees and is willing to give him five minutes of his precious time. Yosi, however, doesn’t care that he only asked for five minutes, but continues to talk, not conscious of the fact that not only is he breaking his word, but is also actually stealing time from Nisi.

Another way of stealing is by arriving late for an appointment. The one who arrives late is stealing precious time from the person who is waiting for him. If someone arrives late, not fulfilling the word that he gave when he decided on a certain time, he is not only corrupting his own word, but he is also stealing time from others.

Another way of stealing is to do careless work. If a man has been employed to work, then that man is worthy of his salary if he really works, but if he is careless in his work or takes breaks without permission, he is stealing from his employer. How can he, with a good conscience, receive money for the time that he has not been working, or for a job that has not been done well? A consecrated person works just as diligently when his boss is there as he does when he is away. One who must have a boss to constantly watch and make sure that he is not taking unnecessary breaks during his working hours, is a thief. There is no deceit in a true Israelite, as it is written in John 1:47,

“Yeshua saw Natan'el coming to him, and said about him, ‘Behold, an Yisra'elite indeed, in whom is no deceit!’”(HNV)

In this passage, the commandment about not stealing is written in the plural form. This teaches us that if someone knows about a theft and does not reveal it, he is guilty as well. The one who is silent becomes one with the person who has sinned.

19:12 “You shall not swear by my name falsely, and profane the name of your God. I am HaShem.”(HNV revised) – The context here is money. When someone steals he could also easily try to hide his crime by deceiving others, see verse 11. If he does not repent it could also be easy for him to lie. This could be a question of something that another has confided in him, or something that he has borrowed and later denies ever having received. It could even go so far that he would swear falsely by HaShem’s name in the presence of a Jewish court, Beit Din, and claim that he has not taken the goods of another. To swear falsely by HaShem’s name is a serious crime.

Rashi believes that when this text says, “You shall not swear falsely by my name”, it is referring to any of God’s names, since in Exodus 20:7, it is only referring to the consecrated Name, YHWH.

This text teaches us that it is permitted to swear by HaShem’s name. The prohibition only applies to swearing falsely by his Name. How are we then to understand the text in Matthew 5:33-37, where the Messiah teaches us not to swear? It is written,

“Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time, ‘You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows,’ but I tell you, don’t swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. Neither shall you swear by your head, for you can’t make one hair white or black. But let your ‘Yes’ be ‘Yes’ and your ‘No’ be ‘No.’ Whatever is more than these is of the evil one.”(HNV revised)

When we read this text it seems as though Yeshua forbids us to swear at all. In that case his teaching would have contradicted the Torah, which permits us to swear, see Genesis 21:31; 24:9; Numbers 30:2.

The Hebrew manuscript of the book of Matthew, called DuTillet, can shed some light on this question for us. It is written there, “do not swear by any thing”, in Hebrew shum davar. Yeshua, therefore, does not forbid swearing in and of itself, but he forbids any oath to be sworn by things. The context of Matthew 5 confirms this interpretation. It talks about not swearing by heaven, earth, Jerusalem, or one’s head. All these are things, but swearing an oath by the name of HaShem is permitted, if it is not done unnecessarily, and if one fulfills the oath.

19:13 “You shall not oppress your neighbor, nor rob him. The wages of a hired servant shall not remain with you all night until the morning.”(HNV) – The Torah continues to speak about money. In this verse, there are three prohibitions against taking or withholding another person’s money. The first speaks about not taking advantage of a position if one has the upper hand, in order to withhold another person’s money. For example, if one person owes another money, he cannot withhold it using excuses or deceit.

The second speaks of openly robbing through violence, as opposed to verse 11 where it speaks about theft done in secret.

The third speaks of procrastinating the time for a salary to be paid. This crime is compared with taking the soul of the worker.

When we see how many prohibitions there are against different kinds of theft, we understand how seriously HaShem views this sin. Theft bring a curse on the one who practices it, as it is written in Zechariah 5:1-4,

“Then again I lifted up my eyes, and saw, and, behold, a flying scroll. He said to me, ‘What do you see?’ I answered, ‘I see a flying scroll; its length is twenty cubits, and its breadth ten cubits.’ Then he said to me, ‘This is the curse that goes out over the surface of the whole land; for everyone who steals shall be cut off according to it on the one side; and everyone who swears falsely shall be cut off according to it on the other side. I will cause it to go out,’ says HaShem of Hosts, ‘and it will enter into the house of the thief, and into the house of him who swears falsely by my name; and it will remain in the midst of his house, and will destroy it with its timber and its stones.’”(HNV revised)

19:14 “You shall not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling block before the blind; but you shall fear your God. I am HaShem.”(HNV revised) – There is a connection between treating handicapped people badly and fearing God. On the one hand it means that the one who mistreats the weak mistreats God who has created them. On the other hand it has to do with a heart attitude of contempt that only HaShem knows about. It is forbidden to look down on the weak in your heart, take advantage of them, mock them, or torment them. That is why it is written, “you shall fear your God”. HaShem sees the secret attitudes of the heart. If a person fears God, he will not think ill of those who suffer because of some kind of handicap.

If we interpret this text in the remez level, the allegorical level, we learn that putting a stumbling block before a blind person can also mean giving bad advice to an ignorant person. Fear of God is the remedy for this sin. One who is aware of the fact that HaShem knows his thoughts will not take advantage of or hurt an ignorant person or anyone who is at a disadvantage.

The Second Aliyah, 19:15-22

19:15 “You shall do no injustice in judgment: you shall not be partial to the poor, nor show favoritism to the great; but in righteousness shall you judge your neighbor.”(HNV) – This text is not speaking to all the citizens of Israel, but only to the judges. A regular person does not have the right to judge his neighbor, as it is written in Matthew 7:1-6,

“Don’t judge, so that you won’t be judged. For with whatever judgment you judge, you will be judged; and with whatever measure you measure, it will be measured to you. Why do you see the speck that is in your brother’s eye, but don’t consider the beam that is in your own eye? Or how will you tell your brother, ‘Let me remove the speck from your eye;’ and behold, the beam is in your own eye? You hypocrite! First remove the beam out of your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck out of your brother’s eye. Don’t give that which is sanctified to the dogs, neither throw your pearls before the pigs, lest perhaps they trample them under their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces.”(HNV revised)

The text in Leviticus 19:15 teaches us that the Torah was written primarily to the judges of Israel. A judge may not, out of compassion, show partiality to the poor. If he did, he would not be able to judge rightly if the poor person had committed a crime. Social status cannot alter justice. In the same way it is forbidden for a judge to honor a great man, which in this case means rich. The judge who changes his behavior or his judgment for the rich man, just because he has money or power to harm, is a corrupt judge. The same attitude is forbidden among all citizens. If we honor a rich man just because of his financial status, and we do not give the same honor to a poor man, we sin by being a respecter of persons, as it is written in James 2:1-9,

“My brothers, don’t hold the faith of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah of glory with partiality. For if a man with a gold ring, in fine clothing, comes into your assembly, and a poor man in filthy clothing also comes in; and you pay special attention to him who wears the fine clothing, and say, ‘Sit here in a good place;’ and you tell the poor man, ‘Stand there,’ or ‘Sit by my footstool;’ haven’t you shown partiality among yourselves, and become judges with evil thoughts? Listen, my beloved brothers. Didn’t God choose those who are poor in this world to be rich in faith, and heirs of the kingdom which he promised to those who love him? But you have dishonored the poor man. Don’t the rich oppress you, and personally drag you before the courts? Don’t they blaspheme the honorable name by which you are called? However, if you fulfill the royal law, according to the Scripture, ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself,’ you do well. But if you show partiality, you commit sin, being convicted by the law as transgressors.”(HNV revised)

“in righteousness shall you judge your neighbor” – This can be understood in different ways. On the peshat-level, the simple level, it can be understood in the way that we have seen earlier, that a judge may not regard the financial status of a suspect when he passes a judgment. According to this interpretation, this sentence serves to confirm what has been said earlier.

The second way of understanding this text is that the accused ought to be considered innocent until the opposite is revealed through proof and witnesses.

The third way of understanding this text is to interpret another person’s suspicious actions in the best light since no one knows the true reason and motive behind the suspicious behavior, which may appear to be sinful.

Never judge anyone without first putting yourself in his place! The one who has compassion in the way he treats his neighbor will receive a compassionate judgment in the Messiah’s court.

19:16 “You shall not go up and down as a slanderer among your people; neither shall you stand against the life of your neighbor. I am HaShem.”(HNV revised) – A slanderer is one who listens to a negative message about another, passes the message on to a third party, and then reveals to the accused person what has been said about him. Even though what was said is true, it is still considered slander, in Hebrew rechilut, and it is forbidden according to the Torah.

The root of the Hebrew word that is translated “stand against” is amad,[7] which means “stand up”, “stand still”, “be still”. The meaning of this sentence therefore is that we should not stand in indifference when a person, Jew or non-Jew, is in life threatening peril, if one has the possibility of saving him. Human life is so precious that breaking nearly every commandment is permitted if it should mean saving one soul. However, if by saving another, we put ourselves in life threatening danger, we are not obligated to help.

This also means that it is forbidden to remain silent if we can testify to the help of someone and save him from being judged by a Beit Din.

19:17 “You shall not hate your brother in your heart. You shall surely rebuke your neighbor, and not bear sin because of him.”(HNV) – Hating someone in secret is forbidden. There are certain people we do not like even though we don’t know why. We simply do not like them. When we feel this, it is important not to let the deceitful emotions of our hearts take over, but instead we must decide to love this person even though we do not like him. HaShem uses these people to test us, to see if we are willing to love our neighbor without naturally liking them. Love is not just a feeling; it is also a decision to be kind to someone, even though they do not give you anything in return.

The commandment about rebuking our neighbor is one of the hardest commandments. No one likes to rebuke or be rebuked. The flesh in us is very prideful and does not like to receive rebuke, especially if the rebuke is coming from someone who is on the same level as we are, or a lower level. In spite of this, it is important to take this commandment seriously and to watch over the wellbeing of our brothers and sisters of the faith. A spiritually mature person appreciates rebuke that is given at the right time, because he knows that he can easily make a mistake even though he is mature. Therefore he values correction highly since it helps him to improve his lifestyle and to avoid making mistakes that bring damage to HaShem’s name, himself, and others.

There are some general principles that can help us to fulfill this commandment in the right way:[8]

  1. One who sees another breaking one of the clear commandments of the Torah ought to rebuke him, even if he knows that the other person will not accept the rebuke.

  2. One who sees another breaking one of the commandments that are not directly expressed in the Torah ought not to say anything, if he is sure that the other person will not accept the rebuke.

  3. If the one who sees another commit a sin is not sure whether the other will listen or not, he ought to rebuke him even though he is not committing a sin that is a direct crime against the Torah.

  4. The commandment about rebuking one’s neighbor only applies when the neighbor is one who wants to fulfill the Torah. It does not apply to an evil person or one who openly despises the Torah, see Proverbs 9:8.

  5. If a Beit Din has the possibility to punish one who breaks a commandment, it is obligated to do so.

  6. The one who is obligated to rebuke the other, ought to do so until the point that the sinner is about to begin insulting him or become violent, see 1 Samuel 20:32-33.

“and not bear sin because of him” – This text teaches us several things. First of all, it means that if you rebuke your neighbor, you are not sinning. Secondly it means that if you do not rebuke your neighbor, you will bear sin because of him, as it is written in Ezekiel 3:18-19,

“When I tell the wicked, You shall surely die; and you give him no warning, nor speak to warn the wicked from his wicked way, to save his life; the same wicked man shall die in his iniquity; but his blood will I require at your hand. Yet if you warn the wicked, and he doesn’t turn from his wickedness, nor from his wicked way, he shall die in his iniquity; but you have delivered your soul.”(HNV)

In Matthew 18:15-17, it is written,

“If your brother sins against you, go, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother. But if he doesn’t listen, take one or two more with you, that at the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the assembly. If he refuses to hear the assembly also, let him be to you as a gentile or a tax collector.”(HNV revised)

This text shows us that we have a responsibility to rebuke one another in order not to bear sin on account of others, as it also is written in Hebrews 3:12-13,

“Beware, brothers, lest perhaps there be in any one of you an evil heart of unbelief, in falling away from the living God; but exhort one another day by day, so long as it is called ‘today’ lest any one of you be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin.”(HNV revised)

However, in order not to bear sin for the other person’s sake, one ought to consider certain things. First of all, the rebuke ought to be given privately so that the sinner will not be put to shame. Our Rabbi Yeshua teaches us, “go, show him his fault between you and him alone”. There are, however, other cases in which a leader ought to be rebuked by other leaders in public so that his sin will not become a bad example for the people to follow, see 1 Timothy 5:19-20.

Secondly, we ought to be very careful with our tone of voice and with what words we use when we rebuke, so that we do not hurt the sinner, see 2 Timothy 2:24-26.

If the person does not heed the first warning, we ought to seek two or three witnesses who can help to rebuke with greater influence. If the person in question still does not want to repent, then the case ought to be taken to court, Beit Din, which in Matthew 18:17 has been translated as “the assembly”. If the transgressor refuses to listen to the judgment that the Beit Din passes, he ought to be considered a heathen and a collaborator. In other words, he is no longer considered to be a member in the congregation of the children of Israel.

In Matthew 7:3-6, it is written,

“Why do you see the speck that is in your brother’s eye, but don’t consider the beam that is in your own eye? Or how will you tell your brother, ‘Let me remove the speck from your eye;’ and behold, the beam is in your own eye? You hypocrite! First remove the beam out of your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck out of your brother’s eye. Don’t give that which is sanctified to the dogs, neither throw your pearls before the pigs, lest perhaps they trample them under their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces.”(HNV)

In order to rebuke someone in the right way, we ought to be very sure that we are not guilty of the same offence. If someone breaks a commandment without making teshuvah, without repenting, he will have a bad conscience and be plagued by guilt. The feeling of guilt can either be based on truth, if we really are in sin, or it can be based on a lie, if we are not living in sin. In both cases, the person with a feeling of guilt has a tendency to look for faults and sins in others. Since he feels accused by his own conscience or by others, it is easy for him to project this feeling to others by pointing the finger and accusing others of their faults. One who feels accused will accuse others. There is also a tendency for the person who feels accused to try to justify himself by pointing out the sins of others who are living a more sinful life than he is. These two reactions, accusation and self-justification, are symptoms of a soul who is unhealthy and has not experienced the depth of forgiveness for his sins.

The one who has first dealt with his own beam will not only have the ability to rebuke his neighbor, but is obligated to do so when the circumstances call for it. Yeshua teaches us that after we have taken out the beam from our own eye, we ought to help our neighbor take out the speck in his eye. If, however, the neighbor is not a brother, but a dog or a pig, then it is not worth the trouble of giving him these pearls because he will trample them and harm us.

In Talmud[9] it is written, “It is better to cause the person himself to admit the truth than to pressure him with a hundred blows.”

Those who do not correct the bad behavior of their children are committing a serious crime.

19:18 “You shall not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of your people; but you shall love your neighbor as yourself. I am HaShem.”(HNV revised) – To take vengeance means to repay someone with the same kind of evil actions that he has committed. Bearing a grudge is not the same as taking vengeance. A grudge is a feeling that a person holds against another when he has done something evil.

This verse contains the commandment that is next to the most important commandment in the whole Torah, as it is written in Mark 12:28-31,

“One of the scribes came, and heard them questioning together. Knowing that he had answered them well, asked him, ‘Which mitzvah is the greatest of all?’ Yeshua answered, ‘The greatest is, “Hear, Yisra'el, the Lord our God, the Lord is one: you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength.” This is the first commandment. The second is like this, “You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” There is no other commandment greater than these.’”(HNV revised)

During Yeshua’s day, there was a discussion about who is considered a neighbor according to the Torah. In Leviticus 19:18 it seems as though the word “neighbor” only refers to one of “the children of your people”, i.e. that it is limited to the Israelites. But verse 34 teaches us that the expression, “your neighbour”, is not limited to meaning only one of the children of Israel, but includes foreigners as well, as it is written,

The stranger that dwells with you shall be to you as one born among you, and you shall love him as yourself. For you were strangers in the land of Egypt. I am HaShem your God.” (MKJV revised)

Love, however, can be expressed primarily to those closest to us. One who does not love his brother, whom he has seen, cannot love the stranger whom he has not seen. Love begins with those closest to us and reaches on to everyone else, as it is written in 2 Peter 1:5, 7:

“This is the message which we have heard from him and announce to you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all… But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Yeshua the Messiah, his Son, cleanses us from all sin.”(HNV revised)

In Luke 10:25-37, we find the answer that our Rabbi gives to the discussion that they had about who is the neighbor of a Jew, as it is written,

“Behold, a certain lawyer stood up and tested him, saying, ‘Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?’ He said to him, ‘What is written in the law? How do you read it?’ He answered, ‘You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind; and your neighbor as yourself.”’ He said to him, ‘You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live.’ But he, desiring to justify himself, asked Yeshua, ‘Who is my neighbor?’ Yeshua answered, ‘A certain man was going down from Yerushalayim to Yericho, and he fell among robbers, who both stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. By chance a certain priest was going down that way. When he saw him, he passed by on the other side. In the same way a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side. But a certain Samaritan, as he traveled, came where he was. When he saw him, he was moved with compassion, came to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. He set him on his own animal, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii, and gave them to the host, and said to him, “Take care of him. Whatever you spend beyond that, I will repay you when I return.” Now which of these three do you think seemed to be a neighbor to him who fell among the robbers?’ He said, ‘He who showed mercy on him.’ Then Yeshua said to him, ‘Go and do likewise.’”(HNV revised)

The Samaritans were hostiles towards the Jews, see John 4:9. This text teaches us that we ought to love all people groups on the earth. Your neighbor is the man you have in front of you, and it doesn’t matter if he is from your own people or a foreigner. Neither should your love be limited to those who treat you well, as it is written in Romans 5:6-10,

“For while we were yet weak, at the right time Messiah died for the ungodly. For one will hardly die for a righteous man. Yet perhaps for a righteous person someone would even dare to die. But God commends his own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Messiah died for us. Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we will be saved from God’s wrath through him. For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we will be saved by his life.”(HNV revised)

Here we see that God’s love includes the weak, the ungodly, sinners, and enemies. We can also see that this love is expressed by God giving his Son for them, as it is written in John 3:16,

“For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life.”(HNV revised)

Here it does not say that God only loved the part of Israel that obeyed him, but that he loved the whole world. That includes those among the children of Israel who do not obey him as well as all those in the world who do not belong to the Jewish people.

The Torah teaches us that we ought to love those who belong to our people, but also the stranger who lives among us, since these are the ones to whom we can directly express our love. I cannot express love to one I do not know. Those closest to me are the ones who can partake of my love and I ought to make an effort to show them the same love that I show myself. If I love my neighbor, I am not going to deceive him or use him. I will take care of his possessions as if they were my own, yes, and even better. I will not harm him with my words, but I will speak to him with respect and I will speak well of him before others. I will not keep my joy to myself, but I will share it with him, and I will be just as joyful when he is successful as I am when I have had success. I will do for him what I wish that someone would do for me in a similar situation.

This text in the Scriptures also teaches us that we ought to love ourselves. You cannot love others if you do not first love yourself. “You shall love your neighbor as yourself”, neither more nor less. You should not love your neighbor more than yourself, but just as much. One who does not love himself, is not capable of loving his neighbor. Love yourself! Forgive yourself! Speak well of yourself! Take good care of yourself! And do the same for your neighbor!

In Romans 8:32-35, it is written,

“He who didn’t spare his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how would he not also with him freely give us all things? Who could bring a charge against God’s chosen ones? It is God who justifies. Who is he who condemns? It is Messiah who died, yes rather, who was raised from the dead, who is at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us. Who shall separate us from the love of Messiah? Could oppression, or anguish, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword?”(HNV revised)

This Bible text teaches us that Yeshua was delivered up for us ALL. The Father’s love, which is revealed through Yeshua HaMashiach, is for each one of us specifically.

“Who could bring a charge against God’s chosen ones?” – If you have been chosen by God to become an object of his love, who are you then to accuse yourself? What right have you to treat yourself ill when HaShem has forbidden the adversary to accuse you once you have repented of your sins? Romans 8:33 is speaking against the adversary, who is the accuser of the brethren. If God, who is the highest Judge, has justified you, declared you innocent, then there is no prosecutor in the world who can accuse you.  The final judgment has already been passed. So who has given you the right to continue accusing yourself for your mistakes, even after you have regretted them and repented of them? If the adversary cannot accuse you, how do you dare to? Stop accusing yourself!

“Who is he who condemns?” – This is referring to the Judge who has the power to condemn, to convict. Since you have placed your faith in Yeshua’s atoning death, HaShem cannot condemn you. He cannot pass a convicting judgment against you since he has already declared you innocent on account of your repentance and trust in the Eternals grace, which was manifested through the atoning work of Yeshua. How then, do you dare pass a conviction against yourself? Stop using words about yourself such as “I am worthless”, “I can’t do anything”, “I am so stupid”, “I always make mistakes”, “I have such a bad memory” and so on! These words are not in agreement with the words that the righteous Judge has spoken over you. He has declared you innocent and free of guilt. So do not blame yourself any longer and do not allow yourself feelings of self-accusation. You ought not even to think badly of yourself. Love yourself and receive the love that the Father has given you through his Son. Then you will be able to love your neighbor as yourself.

Love for our neighbor is dependent upon the extent of our understanding of the love that the Father has for us, as it is written in 1 John 4:8,

“He who doesn’t love doesn’t know God, for God is love.”(HNV revised)

One who does not love himself does not know God. The source of our love is God. The more we get to know God, the more we will be able to love ourselves and our neighbor, as it is written in 1 John 4:19,

“We love, because he first loved us.”(HNV revised)

Our love is in direct proportion to the amount of love we have received from the Father. In other words, if we cultivate our relationship with Him, we will be able to receive of his love and then we will be able to love our neighbor in the same way that we are loved by our Father.

19:19 “You shall keep my statutes. You shall not crossbreed different kinds of animals. You shall not sow your field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon on you a garment made of two kinds of material.”(HNV) – The Hebrew word that is translated as “my statutes” is chukotai. It comes from chuk, which is the name of a commandment that does not have any clear logical explanation. The prohibitions of mixing animals, seed, and clothing of different materials belong to these chukot, statutes without explanation. This text teaches us that, among other things, it is forbidden to cross breed horses with donkeys to get mules.

The commandment about not sowing two kinds of seed only applies to the land of Israel. In the book Kilayim, which is in the Mishnah, you can find all the laws regarding different kinds of seed and those that specify the distance between what is sown and harvested and so on.

The commandment about two kinds of material in the clothing only regards linen and wool, according to Deuteronomy 22:11, where the same commandment is found but is then limited to only linen and wool. This commandment does not apply to the High Priest’s clothing or to clothes that have tzitzit, tassels. These clothes can have both linen and wool in them since it was commanded by HaShem directly.

19:20 “If a man lies carnally with a woman who is a slave girl, pledged to be married to another man, and not (completely) ransomed, or given her freedom; they shall be punished. They shall not be put to death, because she was not free.”(HNV) – The Torah continues to deal with prohibited mixtures, and in this case it has to do with a certain kind of adultery. According to Rashi, this woman is a Kana’anite (a non-Jew), half slave and half free. She has been appointed for marriage to a Hebrew servant, see the commentary on Exodus 21:4. Since she has not been completely ransomed, she has not yet done kidushin, the first step of the marriage covenant. Therefore this act is not considered to be full-blown adultery and will not be punished by death, but only by scourging.

19:21 “He shall bring his trespass offering to HaShem, to the door of the Tent of Meeting, even a ram for a trespass offering.”(HNV revised) – This is one of the crimes that demands a guilt offering, asham.

19:22 “The priest shall make atonement for him with the ram of the trespass offering before HaShem for his sin which he has committed: and the sin which he has committed shall be forgiven him.”(HNV revised) – The sin itself is not forgiven, but it is the sinner who receives forgiveness for his sin if there is repentance and shedding of blood. The sinner is free from that sin, but the sin itself is condemned by the need of an animal that must be sacrificed. This is a shadow of Yeshua HaMashiach’s death, which is the reality that projects the shadow.

The Third Aliyah, 19:23-32

19:23 “And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as uncircumcised: three years shall it be as uncircumcised unto you: it shall not be eaten of.”(KJV) – The root of the Hebrew word that is translated “uncircumcised” is arel,[10] which means “hindrance”, “block”, “close”, “be uncircumcised”, see Exodus 6:12, “uncircumcised lips”. The Hebrew text literally reads, “and you shall block their hindrances”, ve-araltem arlato. In other words, you must prohibit the fruit from the tree because it is hindered, or closed off. It is forbidden to use the fruit of trees during the first three years after planting. Even though this is a chuk-commandment, the Torah gives a small explanation in verse 25, “that it may yield its increase to you”. This commandment only applies in the land of Israel.

19:24 “But in the fourth year all its fruit shall be consecrated, for giving praise to HaShem.”(HNV revised) – Through gezarah shavah, similar expression, we understand that this fruit ought to be treated in the same way as the other tithes, see 27:30. This means that only the owner and his family, as well as any guests, can eat of this fruit in Yerushalyaim. If he cannot bring it there, he must sell it and use the money in Yerushalyaim for a fellowship offering and meals. These days the fruit of the fourth year is redeemed with money.

19:26a “You shall not eat any meat over blood.”(HNV revised) – Talmud[11] shows how this expression “over blood” can be interpreted in several different ways:

  • Not eating meat of an animal that has its blood still in it.

  • Not eating a dead animal as long as it is showing signs of life, i.e. when it has death contractions.

  • Not eating sacrificial meat as long as the blood is still in the bowl that is used to sprinkle the altar.

  • Not eating food that is given to those in mourning, if the one they are mourning was executed by the Sanhedrin.

  • The judges of the Sanhedrin must fast on the day that one they have condemned to death is executed.

  • Not eating meat as a glutton or obtain food by stealing and thus be executed as a “rebellious son”, see Deuteronomy 21:18-21.

  • Not eating before praying the morning prayer, which keeps up life (the blood).

19:25b “neither shall you use enchantments, nor practice sorcery.”(HNV revised) – The first word here, in Hebrew nachash,[12] has to do with predicting the future through different events that are considered omens, for example when a black cat crosses the street or when a mirror breaks. This commandment prohibits superstition. Lavan practiced this sin, see Genesis 30:27 “for I know through divination…”.

This type of divination, however, is not the same thing as when a person receives a revelation through the Ruach HaKodesh (Spirit of prophecy), with the help of certain signs, see Genesis 24:14; Judges 6:37; 1 Samuel 14:9-10. That type of revelation is a lower form of prophecy, called nevuah ketanah.

The second word in this text, in Hebrew “anan”,[13] has to do with “onah”, “season”, “time era”. It means believing that certain days bring luck and others bad luck for certain activities.

19:27 “You shall not cut the hair on the sides of your heads, neither shall you clip off the edge of your beard.”(HNV) – According to Rashi, it is forbidden to cut the hair on the temples in line with the hair that grows behind the ear, so that the circumference around the head is rounded in the corners. The head has two parts, the face and the skull, and they are united at the temples. According to Gur Ariyeh, the Torah calls the place where the face, including the beard, and the skull meet pe’at roshchem, the corner of your head”. It is forbidden to completely cut off the sideburns, i.e. the hair at the temples, so that the head does not have any hair from the area behind the ear up to the face. This commandment only applies to Jewish men. The tradition of letting these peot grow, does not come from the Chassidic Jews. The fact that the Yemenite Jews had long peot when they lived in their land of birth is proof that this tradition goes back to the time of the first temple or further.

The beard has five corners, two on each cheek, which are on the upper part of the head, and one on the chin. According to Rambam,[14] the prohibition of cutting the corner of the beard only applies to shaving with a blade.

These commandments were given so that the Hebrew people would be different than all other nations and specifically so that they would not look like the idol worshippers who would shave off their sideburns and the corners of their beards. As we know, the context here is about not practicing divination and sorcery.

19:28 “You shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead, nor tattoo any marks on you. I am HaShem.”(HNV revised) – According to Rashi, the Amorites, in Hebrew Emorim, see Genesis 14:7, used to cut marks on their bodies as a sign of mourning when someone had died.

Tattooing is forbidden.

19:29 “Don’t profane your daughter, to make her a prostitute; lest the land fall to prostitution, and the land become full of wickedness.”(HNV) – This means that a father does not have the right to allow his unmarried daughter to have sexual relations with a man without first entering a marriage covenant with him.

19:30 “You shall keep my Shabbatot, and reverence my sanctuary; I am HaShem.”(HNV revised) – The Shabbat is the sanctuary of time in the same way that the temple is a consecrated place for HaShem geographically.

Rashi says that it was forbidden to enter the temple with a cane, coin purse, shoes, or dust on one’s feet.

When approaching the western wall of the temple, it ought to be done with reverence. When leaving it, we ought not to turn our backs to the wall immediately, but should first walk a few steps backward and then go away from there. We ought also to behave respectfully in synagogues or houses of study, which are “mini-temples”.

19:31 “Don’t turn to those who are mediums, nor to the wizards. Don’t seek them out, to be defiled by them. I am HaShem your God.”(HNV revised) – The Torah forbids all forms of spiritism or black magic. The Hebrew word that is translated “medium” is ov,[15] which is a reference to one who believes that he can call forth the spirits of the dead and that they speak through the armpit. The Hebrew word that is translated “wizard” is yidoni,[16] which is referring to one who puts the bone of an animal in his mouth and it begins speaking. The word yidoni comes from the name of this bone, yadua. One who practices any of these crimes is unclean and detestable to HaShem.

19:32 “You shall rise up before the gray head, and honor the face of an old man, and you shall fear your God. I am HaShem.”(HNV revised) – The Hebrew word that is translated “gray head” is seivah,[17] which means “older man”, “gray haired person”. It is referring to a man who is at least seventy years old. The Hebrew word that is translated “old man” is zaken,[18] which means “elder”, “man with a beard”. In this context it is referring to one who has a leadership position in Israel. A man who has gathered wisdom through the Torah is also called zaken. These are worthy of more honor than others. The way to honor them is by standing up in their presence, speaking respectfully to them, not addressing them by their name without adding a title, not contradicting them, and so on.

An elder who is a good teacher ought to receive double honor. That means that he ought not only to be honored in the way we mentioned, but he ought also receive financial compensation for his teaching, as it is written in 1 Timothy 5:17,

“Let the elders who rule well be counted worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in the word and in teaching (from the Torah).”(HNV revised)

The Fourth Aliyah, 19:33-36

19:33 “If a stranger lives as a foreigner with you in your land, you shall not do him wrong.”(HNV) – It is forbidden to mistreat a resident foreigner or a proselyte. Rashi points out that this is referring to not oppressing him with words.

19:34 “The stranger who lives as a foreigner with you shall be to you as the native-born among you, and you shall love him as yourself; for you lived as foreigners in the land of Egypt. I am HaShem your God.”(HNV revised) – The love for the resident foreigner ought to be the same as the love for the Jew. HaShem is not a respecter of persons. He loves everyone and that is why he confirms this commandment by saying, “I am HaShem your God”. This is so that the love that we show the resident foreigner will be for the sake of God. Israel was chosen to convey HaShem’s love and salvation to the gentiles.

The Fifth Aliyah, 20:1-7

20:3 “I also will set my face against that person, and will cut him off from among his people because he has given of his seed to Molekh, to defile my sanctuary, and to profane my consecrated name.”(HNV revised) – One who gives his child to a pagan god profanes HaShem’s Name. HaShem wants our descendants for himself, see Malachi 2:15. This is the main purpose of marriage. When giving a child to a demon, one acts in complete opposition to the purpose for which man was created and thus profanes the Consecrated Name.

20:6 “The person that turns to those who are mediums, and to the wizards, to play the prostitute after them, I will even set my face against that person, and will cut him off from among his people.”(HNV) – Idolatry and occultism are considered spiritual adultery. It is the same thing as when a married woman unites herself with a man who is not her husband and thus profanes the marriage covenant. Both physical and spiritual adultery are sins punishable by death.

The Sixth Aliyah, 20:8-22

20:21 “If a man takes his brother’s wife, it is an impurity: he has uncovered his brother’s nakedness; they shall be childless.”(HNV) – Yochanan ben Zecharyah rebuked Herod because he had committed this sin and was murdered because of it, see Matthew 14:3-11.

20:22 “You shall therefore keep all my statutes, and all my ordinances, and do them; that the land, where I am bringing you to dwell, may not vomit you out.”(HNV) – The Torah was given primarily in order to be kept in the Land of Israel. That is why there are some commandments that do not apply outside of the land. Some commandments cannot be fulfilled in lands that are far away from Israel since they have completely different natural and geological conditions. If, for example, you are in a place north of the polar circle in the summer, how will you then be able to see the stars? The sun does not set there at night during the summer. Or, when does the Shabbat start in northern Scandinavia during the summer where the sun does not set? The commandment about dwelling in huts during Sukkot cannot be fulfilled in Alaska because during that season of the year you might freeze to death.

However, those who dwell in the land of Israel are obligated to fulfill the commandments of the Torah so that the land will not vomit them out.

The Seventh Aliyah, 20:23-27

20:23 “You shall not walk in the customs of the nation, which I am casting out before you: for they did all these things, and therefore I abhorred them.”(HNV) – The nations that dwelt in the land of Israel before the children of Israel came, committed all these immoral and occult acts. That was the reason that they were wiped out from the land of Israel

20:26 “You shall be consecrated to me: for I, HaShem, am sacred, and have set you apart from the peoples, that you should be mine.”(HNV revised) – Consecration has to do with having an intimate relationship with HaShem and separating oneself from the customs of the pagan nations.

20:27 “A man or a woman that is a medium, or is a wizard, shall surely be put to death: they shall stone them with stones; their blood shall be upon them.”(HNV) – It seems to be a contradiction that the text in verse 6 only mentions being punished by karet, being cut off spiritually, while here the punishment of the same crime is physical death. Rashi says that when there are two witnesses who have given warning before the crime was committed, the guilty one is to be stoned. However, if the crime was committed intentionally but the person had not been forewarned, then the punishment is karet. A sin committed unintentionally can be atoned for by a sin offering. The death sentence is only passed when the following three conditions are present:

  • The commandment was broken intentionally.

  • Two or three were witnesses of the crime.

  • Warnings were given two or three times about the severity of the sin and its consequences before the crime was committed.

If any of these three conditions are missing, the perpetrator is only punished with karet. If the criminal did not sin intentionally, he will not be punished at all, but must only present a chatat-offering in order to atone for his mistake.

This Parashah contains commandments number 212-262 of the 613 commandments.

212. The command to fear one’s mother and father, Leviticus 19:3.

213. The prohibition of turning to any idol in thought or word, Leviticus 19:4.

214. The prohibition of making an idol for oneself or for others, Leviticus 19:4.

215. The prohibition of eating the meat remains from an offering, Leviticus 19:6-8.

216. The command to leave the corners (pe’a) of the cultivated land unharvested for the sake of the poor, Leviticus 19:10.

217. The prohibition of harvesting a piece of land all the way out to the corners (pe’a), Leviticus 19:9.

218. The command to leave the grain that falls (leket) for the poor while harvesting, Leviticus 19:10.

219. The prohibition of picking up the grain that falls (leket) while harvesting, Leviticus 19:9.

220. The command to leave one part of the vineyard unharvested for the sake of the poor, Leviticus 19:10.

221. The prohibition of harvesting all the fruit of a vineyard, Leviticus 19:10.

222. The command to leave the grapes that fall (peret) while harvesting for the poor, Leviticus 19:10.

223. The prohibition of picking up the grapes that have fallen (peret) while harvesting, Leviticus 19:10.

224. The prohibition of stealing, Leviticus 19:11.

225. The prohibition of refusing to return a stolen object to its owner, Leviticus 19:11.

226. The prohibition of swearing to a false testimony about an object of value, Leviticus 19:11.

227. The prohibition of swearing falsely, Leviticus 19:12.

228. The prohibition of keeping objects that belong to another person, Leviticus 19:13.

229. The prohibition of robbing (violently stealing), Leviticus 19:13.

230. The prohibition of withholding the salary of a worker, Leviticus 19:13.

231. The prohibition of cursing a fellow man, whether man or woman, Leviticus 19:14.

232. The prohibition of giving bad advice so that someone makes a mistake, Leviticus 19:14.

233. The prohibition for a judge to distort justice, Leviticus 19:15.

234. The prohibition for a judge to honor a prominent person during a trial, Leviticus 19:15.

235. The command for a judge to judge rightly, Leviticus 19:15.

236. The prohibition of speaking ill of a fellow man, Leviticus 19:16.

237. The prohibition of not helping a fellow man who is in danger, Leviticus 19:16.

238. The prohibition of hating one’s Israelite brother, Leviticus 19:17.

239. The command to rebuke an Israelite when he acts wrongly, Leviticus 19:17.

240. The prohibition of shaming a fellow man, Leviticus 19:17.

241. The prohibition of taking vengeance, Leviticus 19:18.

242. The prohibition of holding a grudge, Leviticus 19:18.

243. The command to love one’s neighbor, Leviticus 19:18.

244. The prohibition of cross breeding animals of two different species, Leviticus 19:19.

245. The prohibition of sowing two kinds of seed together, Leviticus 19:19.

246. The prohibition of eating fruit from a tree during its first three years, Leviticus 19:23.

247. The command about fruit from a tree in its fourth year of life, Leviticus 19:23-24.

248. The prohibition of eating or drinking like a glutton or drunkard, Leviticus 19:26.

249. The prohibition of caring for a diviner, Leviticus 19:26.

250. The prohibition of making predictions through sorcery, Leviticus 19:26.

251. The prohibition of shaving off the corners of the hair of the head, Leviticus 19:27.

252. The prohibition of shaving off the corners of the beard, Leviticus 19:27.

253. The prohibition of tattooing oneself, Leviticus 19:28.

254. The command to revere the sanctuary, Leviticus 19:24.

255. The prohibition of practicing divination through an ov (medium), Leviticus 19:31.

256. The prohibition of practicing spiritism through a yidoni (medium), Leviticus 19:31.

257. The command to honor the wise, Leviticus 19:32.

258. The prohibition of deceiving with any kind of measurement, Leviticus 19:35.

259. The command that scales, weights, and measurements should be exact, Leviticus 19:36.

260. The prohibition of cursing one’s father or mother, Leviticus 20:9.

261. The command that the court (Beit Din) burn a person who deserves it, Leviticus 20:14.

262. The prohibition of following the customs of the Amorites (gentiles), Leviticus 20:23.

[1]     Malbim 19:1; Erivim 54.

[2]     1) Exodus 20:2 resembles Leviticus 19:3. 2) Exodus 20:3-6 resembles Leviticus 19:4. 3) Exodus 20:7 resembles Leviticus 19:12. 4) Exodus 20:8-11 resembles Leviticus 19:3b. 4) Exodus 20:12 resembles Leviticus 19:3a. 5) Exodus 20:13 resembles Leviticus 19:16b. 6) Exodus 20:14 resembles Leviticus 20:10. 8) Exodus 20:15 resembles Leviticus 19:11a, 13. 9) Exodus 20:16 resembles Leviticus 19:11b, 16a. 10) Exodus 20:17 can be found in Leviticus 19:18b.

[3]     Strong H3372 yârê', yaw-ray', A primitive root; to fear; morally to revere; causatively to frighten: - affright, be (make) afraid, dread (-ful), (put in) fear (-ful, -fully, -ing). (be had in) reverence (-end), X see, terrible (act, -ness, thing).

[4]     Strong H3513 kâbad  kâbêd, kaw-bad, kaw-bade', A primitive root; to be heavy, that is, in a bad sense (burdensome, severe, dull) or in a good sense (numerous, rich, honorable); causatively to make weighty (in the same two senses): - abounding with, more grievously afflict, boast, be chargeable, X be dim, glorify, be (make) glorious (things), glory, (very) great, be grievous, harden, be (make) heavy, be heavier, lay heavily, (bring to, come to, do, get, be had in) honour (self), (be) honourable (man), lade, X more be laid, make self many, nobles, prevail, promote (to honour), be rich, be (go) sore, stop.

[5]     Strong H6437 pânâh, paw-naw', A primitive root; to turn; by implication to face, that is, appear, look, etc.: - appear, at [even-] tide, behold, cast out, come on, X corner, dawning, empty, go away, lie, look, mark, pass away, prepare, regard, (have) respect (to), (re-) turn (aside, away, back, face, self), X right [early].

[6]     Halachot ACUM 2:3.

[7]     Strong H5975 ‛âmad, aw-mad', A primitive root; to stand, in various relations (literally and figuratively, intransitively and transitively): - abide (behind), appoint, arise, cease, confirm, continue, dwell, be employed, endure, establish, leave, make, ordain, be [over], place, (be) present (self), raise up, remain, repair, + serve, set (forth, over, -tle, up), (make to, make to be at a, with-) stand (by, fast, firm, still, up), (be at a) stay (up), tarry.

[8]       Shulchan Aruch Or Asaim 608 Sair Katán 2, Rama.

[9]     Berachot 7a.

[10]    Strong H6189 ‛ârêl, aw-rale', From H6188; properly exposed, that is, projecting loose (as to the prepuce); used only technically uncircumcised (that is, still having the prepuce uncurtailed): - uncircumcised (person).

Strong H6188 ‛ârêl, aw-rale', A primitive root; properly to strip; but used only as denominative from H6189; to expose or remove the prepuce, whether literally (to go naked) or figuratively (to refrain from using): - count uncircumcised, foreskin to be uncovered.

[11]    Sanhedrín 63a; Berachot 10.

[12]    Strong H5172 nâchash, naw-khash', A primitive root; properly to hiss, that is, whisper a (magic) spell; generally to prognosticate: -  X certainly, divine, enchanter, (use) X enchantment, learn by experience, X indeed, diligently observe.

[13]    Strong H6049 ‛ânan, aw-nan', A primitive root; to cover; used only as denominative from H6051, to cloud over; figuratively to act covertly, that is, practise magic: -  X bring, enchanter, Meonemin, observe (-r of) times, soothsayer, sorcerer.

[14]    AKUM 12:1.

[15]    Strong H178 'ôb, obe, From the same as H1 (apparently through the idea of prattling a father’s name); properly a mumble, that is, a water skin (from its hollow sound); hence a necromancer (ventriloquist, as from a jar): - bottle, familiar spirit.

[16]    Strong H3049 yidde‛ônîy, yid-deh-o-nee', From H3045; properly a knowing one; specifically a conjurer; (by implication) a ghost: - wizard.

[17]    Strong H7872 sìêybâh, say-baw', Feminine of H7869; old age: - (be) gray (grey, hoar, -y) hairs (head, -ed), old age.

[18]    Strong H2205 zâqên, zaw-kane', From H2204; old: - aged, ancient (man), elder (-est), old (man, men and . . . women), senator.