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Parashah 49 Ki Tetzeh

Deuteronomy 21:10 – 25:19

By Dr. K. Blad  ©

Second edition 2013-14

Lucrative copying not permitted. 

Torah Readings:

1.      21:10-21

2.      21:22 – 22:7

3.      22:8 – 23:6 (Heb. 23:7)

4.      23:7(8) – 23:23 (24)

5.      23:24(25) – 24:4

6.      24:5-13

7.      24:14 – 25:19

8.      Maftir: 25:17-19

Haftarah: Isaiah 54:1-10

Ki Tetzeh

Means “when you go out”.


The First Aliyah, 21:10-21

21:12 “then you shall bring her home to your house; and she shall shave her head, and let her nails grow”(HNV revised) – If a man wants to marry a female captive who was taken in a non-obligatory war, he must first make sure that she shaves her head and lets her nails grow, so that he will not be deceived by her appearance. If he still likes her even though she now is not so beautiful, then the marriage process can continue between them.

21:13 “and she shall put the clothing of her captivity from off her, and shall remain in your house, and bewail her father and her mother a full month: and after that you shall go in to her, and be her husband, and she shall be your wife.”(HNV) – According to a Midrash,[1] the young women of the nations dressed provocatively so that their enemies would be seduced. This is therefore speaking about the attractive clothing that the captive wore when she was taken. The purpose for her taking off the attractive clothing was so that the man would no longer see her as attractive. Before marriage to a captive, a waiting period of one month had to pass during which she would be able to mourn “her father and her mother”. This teaches us, on the one hand, that HaShem is interested in making sure that her soul is comforted before she is married. It also teaches us that HaShem does not want the man to make a hasty decision. She must weep for a long time and during that time he will not see her joyful and happy, but less attractive in comparison to the Israelite women.

This can be interpreted in another way as well. It could be speaking of cutting the hair and nails (the Hebrew text literally says “do the nails”), in order to undergo a type of cleansing, similar to the cleansing that lepers, nazarites, and Levites undergo when they shave off all the hair on their bodies, see Leviticus 14:9; Numbers 6:9; 8:7. It is a type of conversion through which the captive leaves her earlier identity and becomes a part of the people of Israel.

“one full month” – The slave woman can be compared with Israel, who was in Egypt. HaShem took her out of slavery under Paroh. When her previous owner was dead, she was free to marry HaShem. However, HaShem cannot break his Torah. Therefore he had to wait at least 30 days in order to be married to Israel. On account of this, and for other reasons as well, there was a waiting period from the time of the exodus from Egypt until the ketuvah (the writing), the marriage contract, was given on Sinai.

21:14 “It shall be, if you have no delight in her, then you shall let her go where she will; but you shall not sell her at all for money, you shall not deal with her as a slave, because you have humbled her.”(HNV) – The purpose for these rules is that the woman should no longer be pleasing to the man. For him to marry her is not the best thing, for it brings negative consequences in the future. HaShem established these rules in hopes that the man would finally realize that his marriage to her would not be suitable. The Torah does not forbid these types of marriages. These rules are there in order to dissuade. If the man still wants to marry her, then he may. However, he runs the risk of her becoming a hated wife with time, according to the following verses, and furthermore, it could be that a rebellious son will be born in their marriage, according to the following verses. According to a Midrash,[2] the mother of the rebellious Avshalom was a pagan prisoner of war that King David had taken.

21:15-16 “If a man have two wives, the one beloved, and the other hated, and they have borne him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the firstborn son be hers who was hated; then it shall be, in the day that he causes his sons to inherit that which he has, that he may not make the son of the beloved the firstborn before the son of the hated, who is the firstborn:”(HNV) – This teaches us that when Yaakov gave the birthright of the firstborn to Yosef’s children, who came from the favorite wife, he did not do so because of his love for Rachel, but for other reasons. Reuven lost his birthright as the firstborn by committing adultery. Shimon and Levi, in turn, lost their opportunity because of their violence in the city of Shechem. Yehudah received a special blessing, but the birthright of the firstborn was given to the sons of Yosef, through a prophetic revelation, see 1 Chronicles 5:1-2. We ought also to be aware that the patriarchs did not keep all the commandments before the giving of the Torah.

21:17 “but he shall acknowledge the firstborn, the son of the hated, by giving him a double portion of all that he has; for he is the beginning of his strength; the right of the firstborn is his.”(HNV) – When it says that the firstborn inherits double of all that he has, it means that he receives twice as much as what each one of his brothers receives. According to R. Munk,[3] the firstborn were to be priests and because of this, they could not inherit any land. Instead they received twice as much of the father’s possessions, if you do not count the land.

21:18 “if a man have a stubborn and rebellious son, who will not obey the voice of his father, or the voice of his mother, and, though they chasten him, will not listen to them”(HNV) – The Hebrew word that is translated “stubborn” is sarar,[4] which means “gone astray”. The root of the word that is translated “rebellious” is marah,[5] which means “being disobedient”, “denying”. This is talking about one who is disobedient to his father’s word. The Eternal considers defiance and rebellion as something very serious it must be sternly corrected in the life of a child before the teen years.

According to Talmud,[6] this is talking about a teenager, more than thirteen years old, for otherwise a court could not judge him. This is specifically talking about a son who is in his three months following the bar mitzvah. After the three months, the laws about the “stubborn and rebellious son” are no longer applied to him.

Here, when it talks about punishing him, it is talking about giving him an official warning before the court by flogging him. If he then continues to steal from his father in order to gorge on meat and wine, he must be executed. Tradition teaches a case like this of a youth, who was rebellious, a glutton and a drinker, being executed has never occurred in the history of Israel, since the conditions that the judges established have not been met.

 Since this has not been fulfilled in the history of Israel, does that mean that it will be fulfilled when the Mashiach returns, since it is written, “…until all things are fulfilled.” see Matthew 5:18?

21:20 “and they shall tell the elders of his city, This our son is stubborn and rebellious, he will not obey our voice; he is a glutton, and a drunkard.”(HNV revised) – To have a character that cannot be satisfied, is considered by the Torah as something very negative. Self-control is a fruit of the Spirit of Sanctity, see Galatians 5:23; 2 Timothy 1:7. Self-discipline is part of a good character and is something that parents must teach their children early in life. One of the most important things that parents must teach their children is to not be slaves to their desires, but to control their urges and be led by principles. The Torah condemns lack of self-control. There are especially two areas where a man must learn to control himself: food and sex. If he cannot bridle these two areas in his life, he will never become spiritually mature. The Torah condemns drunkenness. Rabbi Yeshua was falsely accused of being a glutton and a drunkard, see Matthew 11:19.

The Second Aliyah, 21:22 – 22:7

21:22 “If a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be put to death, and you hang him on a tree”(HNV) – Here it speaks of hanging the guilty person on a tree after first having executed him. The Hebrew word for tree, etz,[7] means “tree”, “plant”, “wood”, “firewood”. This teaches us that the Messiah could have been hung on a tree, see Galatians 3:13.

21:23 “his body shall not remain all night on the tree, but you shall surely bury him the same day; for he who is hanged is accursed of God; that you don’t defile your land which HaShem your God gives you for an inheritance.”(HNV revised) – This commandment applies to all those who die in Israel. They must be buried on the day of their death. One may only postpone a burial for one day if the dead person will be honored more by it. If the laws in a land of the Diaspora forbid that the dead person be buried on the same day that he died, those laws must be respected. In any case, it is considered to be dishonoring of the dead when the time is postponed for him to be planted in the earth, so that he can be resurrected. It is also considered to be dishonoring to the dead if the body is abandoned.

This text proves that the day ends at sunset, not at midnight or in the morning.

“that you don’t defile your land…” – The land is defiled by a corpse that has been hung on a tree and has not been buried the same day.

22:1 “You shall not see your brother’s ox or his sheep go astray, and hide yourself from them: you shall surely bring them again to your brother.”(HNV) – If you find something somewhere that is not yours, you do not have the right to take it as your possession. If you know who the owner is, or are able to find out, you must try to find that person and return the object or animal that was lost to him. If you do not know whose the object is, you can keep it in your home until someone should ask for it. Then you must return it.

This teaches us what a great importance the Torah puts on private possessions. It is very important not to take the possessions of others. Any form of taking something that belongs to another is theft, and this applies to time as well.

22:2 “If your brother isn’t near to you, or if you don’t know him, then you shall bring it home to your house, and it shall be with you until your brother seek after it, and you shall restore it to him.”(HNV) – Talmud[8] says that if it is an animal that eats and produces, it ought to eat and produce. However, if it is an object that does not eat or produce, then it ought to be sold. The money is to be kept, in order to be given to the owner of the object. By doing this, the person who misplaced the object will have lost nothing, even if it should be something that looses value over time.

22:3 “So shall you do with his donkey; and so shall you do with his garment; and so shall you do with every lost thing of your brother’s, which he has lost, and you have found: you may not hide yourself.”(HNV) – This is where the idea comes from to set up a sign or a message so that the one who has lost the object can reach the person who has found it. During the second temple period, there was a place outside Yerushalayim where people could go to leave or pick up objects that had been lost. After the destruction of the temple, misplaced objects were announced in the synagogues and houses of study.

This principle can be found in lands where the Torah has had such an influence over the conscience of the population that the level of honesty is high. For example, the police in Sweden, as part of their service, take care of lost objects. People can come to them and give them objects that were found. If one who lost something cannot find it, he can report it to the police. If the object is with the police, it is returned to the owner. It is common for the owner to give a reward to the person who found the object, to reward him for his honesty and willingness to serve.

22:5 “A woman shall not wear men’s clothing, neither shall a man put on women’s clothing; for whoever does these things is an abomination to HaShem your God.”(HNV revised) – This is primarily talking about behaving like a transvestite. According to Rashi, the prohibition only applies when the person is intending to commit sexual immorality. It is detestable to the Eternal. The Orthodox Jews do not allow women to wear pants. It is a good custom that women do not wear pants outside the home. If they do, they ought to wear a skirt over them or use a pantskirt.

Onkelos Targum translates the passage like this:

 “A woman shall not carry manly weapons and a man ought not to groom himself by shaving in the same way that a woman does.”

Talmud[9] forbids men to pluck out their gray hairs, wear feminine jewelry or adornments, and to shave the hair that women normally shave.

22:6-7 “If a bird’s nest chance to be before you in the way, in any tree or on the ground, with young ones or eggs, and the hen sitting on the young, or on the eggs, you shall not take the hen with the young: you shall surely let the hen go, but the young you may take to yourself; that it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days.”(HNV) – This promise is found among the commandments that are considered to be important. Therefore the rabbis have a teaching that says that we do not know which commandment is greater or smaller. If you fulfill this “small” commandment, you will receive a great reward. It is therefore better to fulfill all the applicable commandments, which apply, for one does not know what reward is found in each one of them.

The Torah promises long life to those who do not mistreat animals. Cruelty shortens life. HaShem created us to take care of the weaker animals and created beings that are fragile. Nature itself teaches us that if we mistreat it, we will suffer loss. If you do not water your plants, they will die. If you do not give your hens food, they will not lay any eggs for you. If we take care of nature, and especially of animals, it will be well with us and we will have long lives.

The Third Aliyah, 22:8 – 23:6 (Heb. 23:7)

22:8 “When you build a new house, then you shall make a battlement for your roof, that you don’t bring blood on your house, if any man fall from there.”(HNV) – The one who fulfills the commandment about allowing the mother bird to flee from the nest before taking the eggs, will be blessed so that he can build a new house.

Here is a commandment that speaks of protecting human life. From this, many things can be derived. It is not only talking about houses, but about making sure that human life is protected in every way, by setting up fences and road sings by the roads, covering the holes of an electric outlet so that small children to not stick their fingers into them, etc.

22:9 “You shall not sow your vineyard with two kinds of seed, lest the whole fruit be forfeited, the seed which you have sown, and the increase of the vineyard.”(HNV) – This commandment applies primarily to the land of Israel. However, according to halachah it applies in other lands as well.

 First the Torah mentions a house, then a vineyard, and lastly a wife, verse 13. It is not wise to first marry, and then find a house and a job.

The pshat level, simple level, of this text, teaches us that the produce of the vineyard will be damaged if two types of seeds are mixed.

According to the remez level, we can compare the vineyard with Israel, see Isaiah 5:7. In Israel, one may not sow two types of seed, which can mean:

  • People, see Genesis 15:5. Seed, in Hebrew, is zera. The evil seed is the pagan nations that are not to be mixed with the people of Israel so that they will not be destroyed. An Israelite may not marry anyone from another nation who has not converted to be a Jew. Sooner or later, assimilation will lead to the destruction of the consecrated people.

  • The Torah, see Luke 8:11. The bad seed can be a teaching that comes from an evil source. We cannot mix paganism with the culture of the Torah, for it will bring harm to Israel.

  • Faith, see Matthew 17:20. Faith cannot be mixed with fear or doubt. This will destroy it.

22:10 “You shall not plow with an ox and a donkey together.”(HNV) – According to the pshat level, this is talking about protecting two different kinds of animals, so that they are not injured by working together and also so that they will not interbreed with each other. The mixture of two kinds of animals is forbidden. Before the flood, different races of animals were mixed to such a degree that at the end all flesh, not just the people, were corrupt, see Genesis 6:12.

On the remez level, the allegorical level, we can compare the ox with the leaders who work in the congregations. In 1 Corinthians 9:9-11, the leader is compared to an ox. It is not good to place leaders in the kehilah, assembly, who have different visions and who are not unified. Neither can we allow one who does not have the Spirit of the Mashiach and who has not been born again to be in the leadership of a congregation.

This text also teaches us that a righteous person ought not join with an evil person in a company or business.

22:11 “You shall not wear a mixed yarn, wool and linen together.”(HNV revised) – According to the sages, this means that these two types of thread cannot be card, spun, or twined together. This applies only to the mixture of wool and linen. Wool comes from a clean animal. Linen comes from a plant.

Rashi quotes Talmud,[10] and says that it is permitted to mix wool and linen in a tallit. The tassels are made of wool. It is permitted to place woolen tassels on a linen mantel.

These prohibitions against mixture in three areas, land, animals, and clothing, teach us that we must be careful not to overstep the boundaries that the Torah has staked out and that we must not mix different concepts but must clearly mark the difference between one thing and another.

22:12 “You shall make you tassels on the four borders of your cloak, with which you cover yourself.”(HNV revised) – By this we learn that the tzitzits – fringes – can only be put on a rectangular garment to fulfill this commandment.

The Torah uses three words when it speaks about these tassels, tzitzit, petil (Núm. 15:38, 39) and gedilim, (Deut. 22:12).  The reference in Ezekiel 8:3 together with the Talmud teach us that tzitzit is a collection of threads hanging free, like a lock of hair. According to R. Aryeh Kaplan,[11] you can understand the word petil – ‘united’ and ‘twisted’ – in different ways; a twined thread, a wrap, two fibers that have been tied together, a double thread. The word gedil means hair or threads that have been united into a cord or string. A gedil is two threads and gedilim, in plural, are at lease four threads. A tzitzit is made by four threads, which are doubled to eight.

As tzitzit is referring to loosely hanging hair or threads and gedil to a plait or a string, we can understand that the Torah is speaking about two parts of these tassels, one with loose threads, the lower part, and another, the upper part, where the threads have been tied together with the wrapping. For esthetic purposes, the sages have established that the upper part should make up one third of the entire length of the tassel, and the lower part should make up two thirds.

When HaShem reveals himself, it seems as though he is clothed in a cloak, see Isaiah 6:1, Ezekiel 16:8 and Psalm 91:4. Could it be that HaShem has something that looks like a tallit with tzitzit? If man was created in HaShem’s image, can it be that Adam had some form of tallit of light that covered his body before he fell into sin?

In Psalm 104:1-2, it is written,

“Bless HaShem, my soul. HaShem, my God, you are very great. You are clothed with honor and majesty. He covers himself with light as with a garment. He stretches out the heavens like a curtain.”(HNV revised)

22:20 “But if this thing be true, that the tokens of virginity were not found in the young lady”(HNV) – According to Rashi, it means that she had committed adultery after she had taken the first step of the Jewish marriage, which is called “betrothal”, in Hebrew erusin.

22:26 “but to the lady you shall do nothing; there is in the lady no sin worthy of death: for as when a man rises against his neighbor, and kills him, even so is this matter”(HNV) – Rape is comparable to murder. The damage that a man does to a woman when he rapes her can be compared with taking her life.

23:1(2) “He who is castrated or mutilated, shall not enter into the assembly of HaShem.”(HNV revised) – According to Rashi, one who is “castrated” is one who has damaged or crushed testicles. The prohibition of entering HaShem’s assembly means that one who is castrated, crushed, or mutilated cannot marry a Jewess since he cannot reproduce. Sterilization is not permitted.

23:2(3) “One who is born in adultery shall not enter into the assembly of HaShem; even to the tenth generation shall none of his enter into the assembly of HaShem.”(HNV revised) – The Hebrew word that is translated “born in adultery”, mamzer,[12] is one who is born through incest or adultery. That person cannot marry an Israelite. According to Rashi, a mamzer is only one who is born through a relationship that is punished by karet, spiritual maiming, which is carried out directly by heaven, or by union between those whose relationship was punished with death by a Jewish court. A mamzer is not one who was born through the union of a Jewish man and a Gentile woman.

23:3(4) “An `Ammonite or a Mo'avite shall not enter into the assembly of HaShem; even to the tenth generation shall none belonging to them enter into the assembly of HaShem forever”(HNV revised) – Ruth was a Moavitess and Na’amah, the wife of King Shelomo who was the mother of King Rechavam (Rehoboam), was an Amonite, see 1 Kings 14:21. Both of these women came into Israel through marriage and are in the genealogy of the Messiah. This shows us that this prohibition only applies to men, as it also was established by the halachah.

23:4(5) “because they didn’t meet you with bread and with water in the way, when you came forth out of Egypt, and because they hired against you Bil`am the son of Be'or from Petor of Aram-Naharayim, to curse you.”(HNV) – There were two reasons why they were prohibited from entering the congregation. They did not meet the children of Israel with food and drink when they came from Egypt and they hired Bil’am to curse Israel.

These two people groups had a debt of gratitude to the children of Avraham because they had been saved twice through his intervention, both in the war against Kedorlaomer and when they managed to flee Sedom. Since they were not concerned about this historical debt when they had the opportunity to show love to the descendants of Avraham, they were rejected by the Eternal as candidates for becoming a part of the consecrated people. How important it is to show our gratefulness to those who have done us favors in life, especially when they have saved us out of a crisis!

In the same way that King David was questioned as a rightful heir of the kingdom because his grandfather’s mother was a Moavitess, Yeshua has been questioned as the lawful heir to the throne of David. Especially when one accepts the account given in the Greek manuscripts of the Messianic Writings concerning his supernatural conception without the involvement of a man, according to what his mother said, “How can this be? I have had no relation with a man”, Luke 1:34, see also Matthew 1:25: “until”, and Genesis 3:15: “woman’s seed”.

In Psalm 69:8, it is written,

“I have become a stranger to my brothers, an alien to my mother’s children.”(HNV)

Just as David was questioned, Yeshua was questioned. In John 8:41b, there is an indirect accusation against Yeshua, where it is written,

“They said to him, We were not born of sexual immorality…”(HNV)

23:5(6) “Nevertheless HaShem your God wouldn’t listen to Bil`am; but HaShem your God turned the curse into a blessing to you, because HaShem your God loved you.”(HNV revised) – Bil’am’s curse was turned into a blessing. HaShem is able to change any curse into a blessing. The greatest curse in history was when the Messiah was hung on a tree. That curse was turned into the greatest blessing for all of creation.

The Fourth Aliyah, 23:7(8) – 23:23(24)

23:7(8) “You shall not abhor an Edomite; for he is your brother: you shall not abhor an Egyptian, because you lived as a foreigner in his land.”(HNV) – Rome was established by a descendant of Edom. According to one interpretation on the remez level, we can also say that the Edomites represent the Christians. Jews may not abhor Christians, even if they have done them so much harm. Many Christians are our brothers and sisters, those who have the Messiah’s Spirit.

23:8(9) “The children of the third generation who are born to them shall enter into the assembly of HaShem.”(HNV revised) – Here Rashi quotes the explanation that is found in Sifri,

“But the other nations have a right to come into the congregation of God at once. From this they thus derive that one who causes another to sin, is causing more harm to him than the one who kills him. For murder only causes one to die in this world, while the seducer cuts him off, both in this world and in the coming world. Thus Edom, who went out with the sword, is not abhorred, and neither are the Egyptians, who drowned the children, but only the seducers.”

Edomites and Egyptians who converted could not marry Jews, but only other converts. Their grandchildren could marry Jews. Talmud[13] establishes, however, that these days a Jew can marry a convert from any nation, since King Sancheriv dispersed the nations from their original lands and therefore one can no longer be identified with a single nation.

23:9(10) “When you go forth in camp against your enemies, then you shall keep you from every evil thing.”(HNV) – This text is specifically addressing a situation of war. The presence of the Eternal, the Shechinah, must be present in Israel’s army in order for it to win the victory over its enemies. The wars of Israel depend on the heavenly Presence. In order for the Shechinah to reveal itself, the army must be living on a high level of consecration, which entails both ritual and physical cleanness. The Torah says that the ritual uncleanness that is caused by ejaculation as well as defecation within the camp is something evil. In order for HaShem to deliver us from danger, we must live beyond reproach, where satan cannot reach us. Consecration is our best defense. Wickedness causes a breach in the spiritual defense that surrounds the righteous. This means that when we are in the midst of a battle in our lives, it is important for us to be particularly watchful so that the enemy does not have a reason to accuse and harm us. If we allow evil in our midst, we will not be able to win victory in the struggle against our enemies, whether visible or invisible, as it is written in Ephesians 6:12,

“For our wrestling is not against flesh and blood, but against the principalities, against the powers, against the world’s rulers of the darkness of this age, and against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.”(HNV)

23:11(12) “but it shall be, when evening comes on, he shall bathe himself in water; and when the sun is down, he shall come within the camp.”(HNV) – According to Rashi, this means that he ought to go into a mikveh shortly before sunset.

23:12(13) “You shall have a place also outside of the camp, where you shall go aside:”(HNV revised) – Outside of the camp, there must be a place for the soldiers to go to take care of their needs. However, there were specific rules concerning hygiene that had to be observed so that the heavenly Presence would not be disturbed by unpleasant things.

23:13(14) “and you shall have a stick among your tools; and it shall be, when you sit down out there, you shall dig therewith, and shall turn back and cover that which comes from you:”(HNV revised) – According to Rashi, the word that is translated “tools” is “weapons”. Here we can see how the Torah covers every area of human life, even how one ought to behave when going to the toilet. There are commandments, even for that occasion. Our Father does not miss anything. He instructs us in the most intimate details of life so that we always act in the right way. By doing this, he is also giving us the opportunity to serve him in our practical daily lives.

23:15(16) “You shall not deliver to his master a servant who is escaped from his master to you:”(HNV) – This is talking about a Gentile slave who has fled to the land of Israel away from his master who lives outside of the land. He is not to be sent back to his master.

In Onesimus’ case, this rule did not apply since he did not flee from outside of the land in order to seek asylum in the land of Israel. Therefore the Shaliach Shaul sent him back to his master, see Philemon 10-17.

The Hebrew word that is translated “master” is adonav (alef, dalet, nun, yod, vav), which literally means “his masters”, since the letter yod infers plural. Here we can see how one single person is written about in plural form in the Torah. This is common when it talks about slave owners.

This teaches us that when it concerns absolute authority, the plural form is used, not in order to signify several persons, but to refer to that person’s authority. The same thing applies to the words Ado-nai and Elo-him, which both are written in plural form, but are not talking about several persons; but about Him, who is One and who has all authority.

23:17(18) “There shall be no temple prostitute of the daughters of Yisra'el, neither shall there be a sodomite of the sons of Yisra'el.”(HNV) – The word used for a female temple prostitute is kedeshah,[14] which comes from the same root as the word kadosh, “consecrated”, “dedicated”, “sanctified”, “sacred”, “holy”. This teaches us that consecration does not primarily infer something that has to do with moral purity, but with dedication. When it is talking about female or male prostitutes, in Hebrew kedesh,[15] it is talking about people who have devoted themselves to idolatrous cults and are offering their bodies to sexual deprivation. They are dedicated to their gods and therefore their service has to do with the word kadosh.

23:18(19) “You shall not bring the hire of a prostitute, or the wages of a dog, into the house of HaShem your God for any vow: for even both these are an abomination to HaShem your God.”(HNV revised) – Here the word that is referring to female prostitution is zonah.[16] In this case it is referring to a woman who is offering her body for money. The word “dog” is referring to a homosexual man who is offering his body for money. (Rashi claims, however, that it means that one may not trade in a dog for a lamb and then offer the lamb in the temple.) Both of these “services” are detestable to the Eternal. This teaches us that we cannot receive money in congregations from people that have earned them illegally by breaking the commandments of the Torah. Such offerings are offensive to the Eternal.

23:19(20) “You shall not lend on interest to your brother; interest of money, interest of food, interest of anything that is lent on interest:”(HNV) – Demanding interest on money that has been lent to a brother or sister in need is not allowed. If, on the other hand, you lend money in business transactions, there are other laws that apply.

23:20(21)a “to a foreigner you may lend on interest…”(HNV revised) – The principles of banking are taught to the people of Israel by the Torah. Banks were not invented by people, but by HaShem so that the people of Israel would be able to profit by lending out money to foreigners. This is a part of the blessings that Avraham received and it is a result of obedience to the commandments, as it is written in Deuteronomy 28:12,

“HaShem will open to you his good treasure in the sky, to give the rain of your land in its season, and to bless all the work of your hand: and you shall lend to many nations, and you shall not borrow.”(HNV revised)

23:21(22) “When you shall vow a vow to HaShem your God, you shall not be slack to pay it: for HaShem your God will surely require it of you; and it would be sin in you.”(HNV revised) – This is talking about promises to give offerings. It could be about animals, money, other valuable objects, or a person, see 1 Samuel 1:11.

In Ecclesiastes 5:5-7, it is written,

“It is better that you should not vow, than that you should vow and not pay. Don’t allow your mouth to lead you into sin. Don’t protest before the messenger that this was a mistake. Why should God be angry at your voice, and destroy the work of your hands? For in the multitude of dreams there are vanities, as well as in many words: but you must fear God.”(HNV revised)

The work of our hands will be destroyed if we do not keep the promises that our mouths have spoken. How important what comes out of our mouths is!

The Fifth Aliyah, 23:24(25) – 24:4

23:24-25(25-26) “When you come into your neighbor’s vineyard, then you may eat of grapes your fill at your own pleasure; but you shall not put any in your vessel. When you come into your neighbor’s standing grain, then you may pluck the ears with your hand; but you shall not move a sickle to your neighbor’s standing grain.”(HNV) – According to Talmud,[17] this is talking about the harvest workers. They can eat grapes and grain when they have a break during the day. Others do not have the right to enter private areas and just take what they want. A worker who eats grapes while he is working is more effective in his work, so this commandment is to the advantage of the vineyard owner as well.

In Matthew 12:1-8, it is written,                                                         

“At that time, Yeshua went on the day of Shabbat through the grain fields. His disciples were hungry and began to pluck heads of grain and to eat. But the Pharisees, when they saw it, said to him, ‘Behold, your disciples do what is not lawful to do on the Shabbat.’ But he said to them, ‘Haven’t you read what David did, when he was hungry, and those who were with him; how he entered into the house of God, and ate the show bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for those who were with him, but only for the priests? Or have you not read in the law, that on the day of Shabbat, the priests in the temple profane the Shabbat, and are guiltless? But I tell you that one greater than the temple is here. But if you had known what this means, “I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,” you would not have condemned the guiltless. For the Son of Man is Lord of the Shabbat.’”(HNV revised)

The disciples of the Messiah plucked heads of grain when they were walking through a field of grain. It was Shabbat and they plucked grain in order to still their hunger. They were probably on their way either to or from the synagogue. This was criticized by some of the Pharisees who considered it to be breaking the Shabbat. The disciples were hungry and therefore they took heads of grain from a harvest field. According to the rule of interpretation called kal va-chomer, the argument that weighs heavier, Yeshua allowed them to break the Shabbat when they were plucking the heads of grain in order to still their hunger. This application of the law is in agreement with Jewish halachah.

24:1 “When a man takes a wife, and marries her, then it shall be, if she find no favor in his eyes, because he has found some unseemly thing in her, that he shall write her a bill of divorce, and give it in her hand, and send her out of his house.”(HNV) – A Jewish wedding is only valid if it is performed under a chuppah. In the same way, a Jewish divorce is not valid without a get – a bill of divorce.

During the second temple period there were two main interpretations of the word “unseemly”, in Hebrew ervah,[18] which means “nakedness”, “displeasure”, “lack”, “inappropriate”, “uncleanness”, “confusion”, “shame”. On the one hand, we have the understanding from the house of Hillel, which says that a man can divorce his wife for anything that bothers him, even if it is just that she burns his food. The house of Shamai was stricter. He only permitted divorce when there was improper sexual conduct by the woman.

The author of Sefer HaChinuch considers that a bill of divorce, which is called a get, represents the balance between those who do not permit divorce at all and those who permit divorce by the man saying only one word, for example “go”.

In Matthew 19:3-10, it is written,

“Pharisees came to him, testing him, and saying, ‘Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason at all?’ He answered, ‘Haven’t you read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female, and said, “For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?” So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don’t let man tear apart.’ They asked him, ‘Why then did Moshe command us to give her a bill of divorce, and divorce her?’ He said to them, ‘Moshe, because of the hardness of your hearts, allowed you to divorce your wives, but from the beginning it has not been so. I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for sexual immorality, and marries another, commits adultery; and he who marries her when she is divorced commits adultery.’ His disciples said to him, ‘If this is the case of the man with his wife, it is not expedient to marry.’”(HNV revised)

Here we see how the Messiah comes into the discussion between the house of Hillel and the house of Shamai. He says that the house of Shamai has interpreted the Torah correctly. We can draw some conclusions from this passage:

  1. Divorce is not the Eternal’s original intent for man.

  2. Divorce was permitted by the Eternal, not commanded.

  3. The Eternal permitted divorce because of man’s hard heart.

  4. Divorce with the purpose of remarrying cannot be just for any reason – only if the reason is something improper, in Hebrew ervat davar, which is translated as “sexual immorality” in Matthew 19:9.

“he has found some unseemly thing in her” – The expression ervat davar (some unseemly thing) is the key to this whole discussion. The question that they asked our Rabbi was: “Is it lawful for a man to divorce his wife for any reason at all?”, which was Hillel’s interpretation, who understood the expression ervat davar to mean anything at all. Rabbi Yeshua answers that ervat davar does not mean anything at all that displeases the man, but that it has to do with sexual impropriety in her, which in Greek was translated as porneia,[19] “immorality”, “fornication”, “sexual sin”, “unchastity”.

However, if she had committed adultery during the time of her betrothal, she was to be stoned, not rejected by divorce, see Deuteronomy 22:20-24; Leviticus 20:10. The Torah cannot have two laws concerning the same crime. When a man is to divorce his wife, it must be done by an official act where he gives her a bill of divorce, which is called “get”. This causes the woman to return to an unmarried state and thus has the right to remarry with another. The bill of divorce is an official, legal document that gives the woman the right to remarry. Without a get, she would be an adulteress if she were to be united with another man, compare with Romans 7:1-3.

According to Yeshua’s answer in Matthew 19:9, a man does not commit adultery when he divorces one woman and then marries another, if there was sexual behavior found in his first wife that was improper (ervat davar). The expression ervat davar is also found in the previous chapter of this Parashah, see Deuteronomy 23:14, where it is referring to human excrement, which could not be visible in the Presence of the Eternal neither in nor outside of the war camp. If it were visible, it would be something inappropriate for the heavenly Presence.

We can then summarize the whole thing by saying that the expression ervat davar, in chapter 24, is not talking about any behavior at all by the woman, as determined by the man’s whim. Neither does it mean immorality before the marriage or adultery during the betrothal period or during the marriage, but a woman’s sexual perversion that is very repulsive to the man, just as excrement on the ground inside or outside a consecrated war camp is repulsive to the heavenly Presence.

According to Yeshua’s teaching in Matthew 19, where he is explaining the text of Deuteronomy 24, divorce is permitted among those whose hearts are hard, when the spouse has a behavior of sexual perversion. An official divorce, where a legal document is handed over, brings with it the right to remarry.

24:4b “and you shall not cause the land to sin, which HaShem your God gives you for an inheritance.”(HNV revised) – Forbidden relations bring sin over the land of Israel and it was one of the main reasons why the population of the seven nations was wiped out of the land, see Leviticus 18:27-28.

The Sixth Aliyah, 24:5-13

24:5 “When a man takes a new wife, he shall not go out in the host, neither shall he be charged with any business: he shall be free at home one year, and shall cheer his wife whom he has taken.”(HNV) – Family life is so important that for the first year of marriage, it has a higher priority than the duty of going to war. The purpose for this law is to cheer and make the wife happy. The greatest thing in life for a woman is to marry and have children.

24:7 “If a man be found stealing any of his brothers of the children of Yisra'el, and he deal with him as a slave, or sell him; then that thief shall die: so shall you put away the evil from the midst of you.”(HNV) – According to Rashi, the kidnapper deserves death only if he has also treated the kidnapped person as a slave.

24:8-9            “Take heed in the plague of leprosy, that you observe diligently, and do according to all that the priests the Levites shall teach you: as I commanded them, so you shall observe to do. Remember what HaShem your God did to Miryam, by the way as you came forth out of Egypt.”(HNV revised) – Miryam was punished with the tzaraat plague (“leprosy”), because she misused her tongue and spoke lashon ha-rah. Here the Torah commands us to remember what happened to her so that we will not speak ill of authorities.

24:10 “When you do lend your neighbor any manner of loan, you shall not go into his house to get his pledge.”(HNV) – No one has the right to enter a house or a private area without permission.

24:13 “you shall surely restore to him the pledge when the sun goes down, that he may sleep in his garment, and bless you: and it shall be righteousness to you before HaShem your God.”(HNV revised) – Righteousness, in Hebrew tzedakah, in this case does not mean that one is justified, or declared innocent from sin, as a reward for having been kind to the poor. It is talking about a good deed that is done in order to fill the foundational needs of a person in distress. This is where the expression tzedakah comes from in relation to helping the needy, see verse 17; Matthew 6:1.

 The meaning of the word has to do with doing the right thing. When we help a person in need, we are doing something right.

The Seventh Aliyah, 24:14 – 25:19

24:15 “in his day you shall give him his hire, neither shall the sun go down on it; for he is poor, and sets his heart on it: lest he cry against you to HaShem, and it be sin to you.”(HNV revised) – If one employs a man for a day, he must be given his salary before the sun goes down, otherwise one is sinning.

24:16 “The fathers shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the fathers: every man shall be put to death for his own sin.”(HNV) – According to Rashi, parents cannot be executed at the testimony of their children.

The Hebrew text says “every man”. According to Talmud,[20] this teaches us that the death penalty cannot be given to children who are of age because of what their parents did. It can be given to children that are not of age, see Joshua 7:24.

24:18 “but you shall remember that you were a bondservant in Egypt, and HaShem your God redeemed you there: therefore I command you to do this thing.”(HNV revised) – This is one of the 10 things that the Tanach mention that one must remember. There are also two things mentioned in the Messianic Writings. These 12 things are:

1.      The exodus out of Egypt, Exodus 13:3; Deuteronomy 5:15; 24:18, 22.

2.      The manna, Exodus 16:32-33.

3.      The Shabbat, Exodus 20:8.

4.      What Amalek did, Deuteronomy 25:17.

5.      The revelation at Sinai, Malachi 4:4.

6.      The provocation in the desert, especially with the golden calf, Deuteronomy 9:7.

7.      What Balak and Bil’am did, Micha 6:5.

8.      What happened to Miryam, Deuteronomy 24:9.

9.      The Eternal, who gives strength to acquire riches, Deuteronomy 8:18.

10.  Yerushalayim, Psalm 137:5.

11.  Lot’s wife, Luke 17:32.

12.  Yeshua HaMashiach, Luke 22:19; 2 Timothy 2:8.

24:19 “When you reap your harvest in your field, and have forgot a sheaf in the field, you shall not go again to get it: it shall be for the foreigner, for the fatherless, and for the widow; that HaShem your God may bless you in all the work of your hands.”(HNV revised) – Here we can see how prosperity in our work is a result of treating the needy well. There are three commandments, which only apply to the land of Israel, concerning the harvesting of a field, which also ensures that those in distress are helped.

  1. Peah – not harvesting everything, but to leave between one sixtieth and one fortieth (1.8% - 2.5%) in the corners of the field.

  2. Leket – not picking up one or two heads of grain that have fallen behind the harvest worker.

  3. Shikchah – not going back to fetch one or two sheaves that were forgotten on the field.

25:5 “If brothers dwell together, and one of them die, and have no son, the wife of the dead shall not be married outside to a stranger: her husband’s brother shall go in to her, and take her to him as wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother to her.”(HNV) – These days, people are not advised to enter into this type of marriage. Instead what is always done is what is described in the following verses, called chalitzah, see also Ruth 4:7-8.

25:12 “then you shall cut off her hand, your eye shall have no pity.”(HNV) – According to Rashi, this means that one must pay a sum of money that represents the shame.

25:15 “A perfect and just weight shall you have; a perfect and just measure shall you have: that your days may be long in the land which HaShem your God gives you.”(HNV revised) – One who does not deceive will have a prolonged life.

25:16 “For all who do such things, even all who do unrighteously, are an abomination to HaShem your God.”(HNV revised) – A deceiver is abominable to the Eternal.

25:17 “Remember what `Amalek did to you by the way as you came forth out of Egypt”(HNV) – If we have false weights, Amalek will have permission to destroy us.

The Mashiach in this Parashah

21:22-23 “hang him on a tree… he who is hanged is accursed of God.”(HNV revised) – Yeshua was cursed by God. Every curse of the Torah came over him when he was hung.

In Galatians 3:13-14, it is written,

“Messiah redeemed us from the curse of the Torah, having become a curse for us. For it is written, ‘Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree,’ that the blessing of Avraham might come on the Gentiles through Messiah Yeshua; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.”(HNV revised)

The Torah is not a curse, as some interpret this text to mean. The Torah is one of the greatest blessings that have come to us from heaven. But there are curses in the Torah, see Leviticus 26 and Deuteronomy 27-28. These curses are the result of disobedience to the commandments. Yeshua bought us free from the consequences of our sins, which are the curses that are written in the Torah. This applies to all those who receive his work through repentance and trust in God. God has supplied us with everything we need through Yeshua’s death and resurrection. When the Messiah redeemed us, which means that he set us free with a ransom, he was forced to pay the consequences of our disobedience to the commandments, which are the curses that are written in the Torah. All the curses came on him. All sicknesses came on him. All the wrath of God came on him, as it is written in Isaiah 53:4-6,

“Surely he has borne our sickness, and carried our suffering; yet we considered him plagued, struck by God, and afflicted. But he was pierced for our transgressions, he was crushed for our iniquities; the punishment that brought our shalom was on him; and by his wounds we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; everyone has turned to his own way; and HaShem has laid on him the iniquity of us all.”(HNV revised)

Yeshua took our place and bore the curse that we should have had. Thus we are set free, forgiven, and restored. The result of Yeshua taking the curse of the Torah on himself, is that the blessings of Avraham comes over the children of Israel and even over the Gentiles.

If Yeshua was exposed to the curses of the Torah so that Avraham’s blessing could come to the Gentiles, then there must be a connection between the curses of the Torah and the Gentiles. If the Torah does not apply to the Gentiles, how could Yeshua then take the curse that belonged to the Gentiles, so that Avraham’s blessing could reach them? If the curse does not apply to the Gentiles, then neither does the blessing. If there is nothing in the Torah for the Gentiles, then there is no curse for them, since the curse is a result of disobedience to the Torah. If there is no law, then there is no disobedience and no curse. Yeshua took the curse for the Jews but also for the Gentiles so that Avraham’s blessing could reach everyone. This proves that the Gentiles are not completely outside of the Torah, but that there are commandments written in the Torah that apply to Gentiles.

Thanks to the curse that came on the Messiah, when he was hung on a tree, we are delivered from the curse that we should have had because of our disobedience. Baruch HaShem!

This Parashah contains commandments number 532 – 605 of the 613 commandments:

  1. The command about the woman who was taken captive in a war (yefat toar), Deuteronomy 21:11.

  2. The command to hang up one whom the court (beit din) has condemned to death, Deuteronomy 21:22.

  3. The command to bury one who was hung as well as all others, Deuteronomy 21:23.

  4. The command to return something that was lost to its owner, Deuteronomy 22:1.

  5. The command to help one’s neighbor when he needs to load an animal or a person, Deuteronomy 23:4.

  6. The command to frighten away a mother bird from the nest, Deuteronomy 22:7.

  7. The command to put up a fence on the roof, Deuteronomy 22:8.

  8. The command to marry a woman in accordance to what is determined in the Torah, Deuteronomy 22:13.

  9. The command that a slandered wife is to remain with her spouse forever, Deuteronomy 22:19.

  10. The command for the court (beit din) to stone one who has been sentenced to execution in this manner, Deuteronomy 22:24.

  11. The command for one who has committed rape to marry the woman that he raped, Deuteronomy 22:29.

  12. The command to appoint a place in the (war) camp for carrying out one’s physical needs, Deuteronomy 23:12(13).

  13. The command about having a shovel in the camp for covering up excrements, Deuteronomy 23:13(14).

  14. The command to charge interest from a Gentile that one has lent money to, Deuteronomy 23:20(21).

  15. The command to fulfill a promise or an oath, Deuteronomy 23:23(24).

  16. The command to allow a worker to eat certain things while he is working, Deuteronomy 23:24(25).

  17. The command to give a bill of divorce to one’s wife if she is divorced, Deuteronomy 24:1.

  18. The command for a bridegroom to make his wife happy during the first year of marriage, Deuteronomy 24:5.

  19. The command to return an object that was given as a pledge to its owner if he needs it, Deuteronomy 24:13.

  20. The command to pay a worker on the right day, Deuteronomy 24:15.

  21. The command to leave forgotten sheaves, Deuteronomy 24:19.

  22. The command to flog one who deserves it, Deuteronomy 25:2.

  23. The command about the responsibility of a brother-in-law, Deuteronomy 25:5.

  24. The command about chalitzah, Deuteronomy 25:9.

  25. The command about rescuing one who is pursued by a murderer, Deuteronomy 25:12.

  26. The command to remember what Amalek did when we left Egypt, Deuteronomy 24:20

  27. The command to wipe out the descendants of Amalek, Deuteronomy 25:18.

  28. The prohibition of selling a woman who was taken captive in war (yefat toar), Deuteronomy 21:14.

  29. The prohibition of allowing the woman who was taken captive in war (yefat toar) to serve as a slave after one has had intimate relations with her, Deuteronomy 21:14.

  30. The prohibition of allowing a dead body to hang over night, Deuteronomy 21:23.

  31. The prohibition of not caring for a lost object, Deuteronomy 22:3.

  32. The prohibition of not helping the animal of one’s neighbor when it is under its burden, Deuteronomy 23:4.

  33. The prohibition of allowing a woman to dress in man’s clothing, Deuteronomy 22:5.

  34. The prohibition for a man to wear woman’s clothing, Deuteronomy 22:5.

  35. The prohibition of taking a mother bird together with her young, Deuteronomy 22:6.

  36. The prohibition of leaving objects that can cause damage, Deuteronomy 22:8.

  37. The prohibition of sowing two types of seed in the same place, Deuteronomy 22:9.

  38. The prohibition of eating mixtures of different types of seeds that were sown together, Deuteronomy 22:9.

  39. The prohibition of allowing two different kinds of animals to carry out the same work, Deuteronomy 22:10.

  40. The prohibition of wearing clothes that contain both linen and wool, Deuteronomy 22:11.

  41. The prohibition for a man to divorce a wife that he has slandered, Deuteronomy 22:19.

  42. The prohibition to punish one who was forced to commit an offense, Deuteronomy 22:26.

  43. The prohibition for one who has raped a woman to be divorced from her, Deuteronomy 22:29.

  44. The prohibition for a man with damaged male organs to marry a Jewess, Deuteronomy 23:1(2).

  45. The prohibition for a mamzer to marry a Jewess, Deuteronomy 23:2(3).

  46. The prohibition for a Jewess to marry an Amonite or a Moavite, Deuteronomy 23:3(4).

  47. The prohibition of making peace treaties with the Amonites or the Moavites, Deuteronomy 23:6(7).

  48. The prohibition of hindering a marriage to descendants of Esav after two generations have passed, if they have converted, Deuteronomy 23:7-8(8-9).

  49. The prohibition of hindering a marriage to Egyptians (Egyptians) after three generations have passed, if they have converted, Deuteronomy 23:7(8).

  50. The prohibition of entering the camp area of the Levites while unclean, Deuteronomy 23:10(11).

  51. The prohibition of sending back a slave that has fled to the land of Israel from his owner who is outside of the land, Deuteronomy 23:15(16).

  52. The prohibition of making a slave suffer who has fled from his owner to the land of Israel, Deuteronomy 23:16(17).

  53. The prohibition for a woman to have marital relations outside of the marriage, Deuteronomy 23:17(18).

  54. The prohibition of offering the wages that a loose woman or man has received for their services, Deuteronomy 23:18(19).

  55. The prohibition of taking interest on a loan to a Jew, Deuteronomy 23:19(20).

  56. The prohibition of waiting with giving an offering that was promised, or voluntary, Deuteronomy 23:21(22).

  57. The prohibition for a worker to take more than what he needs to eat, Deuteronomy 23:24(25).

  58. The prohibition for a worker to eat during his working hours, Deuteronomy 23:25(26).

  59. The prohibition of marrying one’s former wife after she has married another, Deuteronomy 24:4.

  60. The prohibition of allowing a bridegroom to be away from his home for a long period of time during his first year of marriage, Deuteronomy 24:5.

  61. The prohibition of taking objects as a pledge that are necessary for preparing food, Deuteronomy 24:6.

  62. The prohibition of removing signs of tzaraat, Deuteronomy 24:8.

  63. The prohibition of taking a pledge through violence, Deuteronomy 24:10.

  64. The prohibition of keeping an object that was pledged if the owner needs it, Deuteronomy 24:12.

  65. The prohibition of allowing a close relative to be a witness, Deuteronomy 24:16.

  66. The prohibition of perverting justice to the advantage of an orphan or widow, Deuteronomy 24:17.

  67. The prohibition of taking a pledge from a widow, Deuteronomy 24:17.

  68. The prohibition of fetching a forgotten sheave, Deuteronomy 24:19.

  69. The prohibition of giving too many beatings to one who has been sentenced to flogging, Deuteronomy 25:3.

  70. The prohibition of muzzling an animal while it is working, Deuteronomy 25:4.

  71. The prohibition for a woman who is yebamah to marry anyone who is not the yabam, Deuteronomy 25:5.

  72. The prohibition of having mercy on one who pursues another person in order to kill him, Deuteronomy 25:12.

  73. The prohibition of having false weights, Deuteronomy 25:13.

  74. The prohibition of forgetting what Amalek did to us, Deuteronomy 25:29.

[1]       Sifrí 213.

[2]       Tanchumah Vayetsé 1.

[3]       La voz de la Torá. Translated from Spanish by the author of this article.

[4]       Strong H5637 sârar, saw-rar', A primitive root; to turn away, that is, (morally) be refractory: -  X away, backsliding, rebellious, revolter (-ing), slide back, stubborn, withdrew.

[5]       Strong H4784 mârâh, maw-raw', A primitive root; to be (causatively make) bitter (or unpleasant); (figuratively) to rebel (or resist; causatively to provoke): - bitter, change, be disobedient, disobey, grievously, provocation, provoke (-ing), (be) rebel (against, -lious).

[6]       Sanhedrin 68b.

[7]       Strong H6086 ‛êts, ates, From H6095; a tree (from its firmness); hence wood (plural sticks): -  + carpenter, gallows, helve, + pine, plank, staff, stalk, stick, stock, timber, tree, wood.

[8]       Babah Metsiah 28b.

[9]       Shabat 94, Nazir 59.

[10]     Jevamot 4a.

[11]     “Tszitzit – un hilo de luz”, page 14-16.

[12]     Strong H4464 mamzêr, mam-zare', From an unused root mian. to alienate; a mongrel, that is, born of a Jewish father and a heathen mother: - bastard.

[13]     Brachot 28.

[14]     Strong H6948 qedêshâh, ked-ay-shaw', Feminine of H6945; a female devotee (that is, prostitute): - harlot, whore.

[15]     Strong H6945 qâdêsh, kaw-dashe', From H6942; a (quasi) sacred person, that is, (technically) a (male) devotee (by prostitution) to licentious idolatry: - sodomite, unclean.

[16]     Strong H2181 zânâh, zaw-naw', A primitive root (highly fed and therefore wanton); to commit adultery (usually of the female, and less often of simple forniciation, rarely of involuntary ravishment); figuratively to commit idolatry (the Jewish people being regarded as the spouse of Jehovah): - (cause to) commit fornication, X continually, X great, (be an, play the) harlot, (cause to be, play the) whore, (commit, fall to) whoredom, (cause to) go a-whoring, whorish.

[17]     Babah Metsiah 87b.

[18]     Strong H6172 ‛ervâh, er-vaw', From H6168; nudity, literally (especially the pudenda) or figuratively (disgrace, blemish): - nakedness, shame, unclean (-ness).

[19]     Strong G4202 πορνεία, porneia, por-ni'-ah, From G4203; harlotry (including adultery and incest); figuratively idolatry: - fornication.

[20]     Shabbat 32b.